City and Gender
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- 1 Wiki Entry 1: Sister Carrie p.1-184 (due January 15)
- 2 Wiki Entry 2: Sister Carrie p.185-344 (due January 22)
- 3 Wiki Entry 3: Sister Carrie p.345-487 (due January 24)
- 4 Wiki Entry 4: The Age of Innocence (entire film) (due January 31)
- 5 Wiki Entry 5: Jazz p.1-87 (due February 5)
- 6 Wiki Entry 6: Jazz p.89-162 (due February 7)
- 7 Wiki Entry 6: Jazz p.89-162 (due February 7)
- 8 Wiki Entry 7: Jazz p. 165-229 (due February 12)
- 9 Wiki Entry 8: Clockers (entire film) (due February 21)
- 10 Wiki Entry 9: Manhattan (entire film) (due February 28)
- 11 Wiki Entry 10: Cosmopolis p.1-61 (due March 4)
- 12 Wiki Entry 11: Cosmopolis p.63-155 (due March 6)
- 13 Wiki Entry 12: Cosmopolis p.157-209 (due March 11)
Wiki Entry 1: Sister Carrie p.1-184 (due January 15)
Keywords by Megan Root
pg68-69 "There isn't anything down there. Chicagos the place."- relating the difference between large cities and small ones. That there is a huge difference between the two types of cities and that one is better than the other.
pg78 "She had vain imaginings of place and power, about far off lands and magnificent people"- A womans ability to romantize things, where men lack in imagination
pg79 "She was again the victim of the city's hypnotic influence."- suggesting that a city has a mind of its own, that it can control a persons feelings and actions
pg94 A womens analysis of a man who she sees as less intelligent then herself- "she was beginning to see where he lacked" speaking of Drouet
pg167 "Carrie disliked his appearance, but she was too much the actress..."- This shows Carries attitude in how she views men, she dislikes them by their and judges men and women alike on how they look. gender identification through appearances.
Chap. 1- Description of young girl leaving home at 18. Innocence and naivety in describing Sister Carrie.
Chap. 2- pgs 12-14, woman’s natural observation, intuition, being sent to where young girls go to find work, Minnie’s housewife roll, expectations of girls in the city
Chap. 3- pgs 20-24, untrained girls work at department stores, women being described as oversensitive in their appearance, women’s attire as body showing
Chap. 4- Hanson’s demeanor-what expectations there are for men, Minnie as a kept woman/housewife, young girls indulge in vanity and wastefulness, the breakdown of the female vs. male dynamic in society
Chap. 5- men’s fashion and societal adaptability
Chap. 6- treatment of single women, and how women are taken care of in society and by men in particular
Chap. 7- pg. 63 Drouet giving money to a “poor young girl”, his wooing of women, desperate female, pg. 68 “Like all women, she was there to object and be convinced”
Chap. 8- young women being sucked in to the dark side of society
Chap. 9- the female relationship dynamic between Mrs. And Ms. Hurstwood
Chap. 10- pg. 90 “all men should be good, all women virtuous”
Chap. 11- description of the female form, grace of the woman
Chap. 12- Mrs. Hurstwood’s attitude towards being betrayed by her husband, Hell hath no furry…
Keywords- Sister Carrie- Noelle Viau
Introduction p xiii; Carrie Meeber is a common type of her day- the young women who were leaving behind their settled worlds of family and small town to test themselves in the fearsome city. In an ironic bow to the popular, preachy shopgirl novels of that era.
“With the innate subversion of genius, Dreiser uphended these moralistic strictures and made a modern woman of Carrie, the first to appear in an American novel, a woman exposed to the temptations of sex, the lure of distant wealth; to the hardships of earning a living in the city, to an industrial system in which working girls were raw material for exploitation. Such young women’s only moral escape was marriage; those who didn’t marry found that their bodies were their only asset- a commodity they bartered as advantageously as they knew how.
Introduction P, xviii; As late as the 1940’s, Sister Carrie was barred from the movies because of its heroine’s unpunished immoral career.
P 1; and the threads which bound her so lightly to girlhood and home were irretrievably broken.
P 2; possessed of a figure promising eventual shapeliness an eye alight with certain native intelligence. In the intuitive graces she was still crude. She could scarcely toss her head gracefully. Her hands were almost ineffectual
P 3; Her maidenly reserve
P3; and which concisely expressed the thought of one whose dress or manners are calculated to elicit admiration of susceptible young women- a “masher”.
P4; His method was always simple. Its principle element was daring, backed of course, by an intense desire and admiration for the sex. Let him meet with a young woman twice and he would straighten her necktie for her and perhaps address her by her first name.
P 12; the latter talked in a subdued tone, telling the little she knew about it
P13; together they finished the labor of the day, Carrie washing the dishes while Minnie undressed the baby and put it to bed
P18; she looked helplessly around, and then
P20; “Well, we haven’t anything here, “ he said. “We employ only experienced help.”
P21: dainty slippers and stockings, the delicately frilled skirts and petticoats, the laces, ribbons, haircombs P23; They were a fair type of nearly the lowest order of shopgirls- careless, slouchy
P31; naturally timid in all things related to her advancement, and especially so when without power or resource
P31; At last she yielded enough to ask Hanson
P38; What we know of footrests, swivel back chairs, dining rooms for the girls, clean aprons and curling irons supplied free, and a descent cloakroom, were unthought of.
P39; As Carrie listened to this and much more of similar familiar badlinage among men and girls, she instinctively withdrew herself
P39; She made the average female distinction between clothes, putting worth, goodness, and distinction in a dress suit
P 79; Carrie had no excellent home principles fixed upon her……She was again the victim of the city’s hypnotic influence.
P 87; “It was all right to do it- all men do those things- but why wasn’t he careful? “A man can’t be too careful”.
P 119; At the same time, his experience with women in general had lessened his respect for the sex Pg 119; He looked upon most women with suspicion- a single eye to the utility of beauty and dress.
P 183; “Remember, she concluded, “love is all a woman has to give”.
P 184; With the tables turned, she was looking down, rather than up, to her lover.
P 184; He whispered “tomorrow” passionately to Carrie, and she understood
Notes by Laura Hall
pg. 120 "If, unfortunately, the fly has got caught in the net, the spider can come forth and talk business upon it's own terms. So when maidenhood has wandered into the moil of the city, when it is brought within the circle of the "rounder" and the roue, even though it be at it's outermost rim, they can come forth abd use their alluring arts." This is a great analogy for the interactions between the sexes.
pg. 9 "All right," he said in all kindness. "I'll be near, though, in case she isn't here, and can take you out there safely." "good-bye," she answered, taking his proffered hand. "Remember, I'll be looking till you find your sister." She clearly would never be able to accomplish anything on her own?
pg.103 "What Drouet said about the girl's grace, as she tripped out evenings accompanied by her mother, caused Carrie to perceive the nature and value of those little modish ways which women adopt when they would presume to be something. She looked in the mirror and pursed uup her lips, accompanying it with a little toss of the head, as she had seen the treasurer's daughter do. This implies a woman needs to be like everyone else and not an individual.
pg. 98 "Now," he observed to Drouet, with a tone of good-fellowship,"when you leave your wife alone, you must let me show her around a little. It will break up her loneliness." A woman can't plan her own recreation or assume that there could be any with out a man?
p.4-6…Drouet meets Carrie on the train and goes on and on about Chicago, showing off his expertise to gain her interest. He then offers to show her around, willing to prove his knowledge is legitimate.
p.7-“he had gained a victory”…women are a challenge to men
p.7-“Already he took control in directing the conversation”…taking control, a normal trait found in men.
p.9-Drouet says, “take you out there safely” which implies that being as though Carrie is a woman, she needs protection.
p.12-“She had some slight gift of observation and that sense, so rich in every woman-intuition”…reference to a female quality.
p.23-“Girls wanted-wrappers & stitchers”…portrays the typical work offered to women during that time.
p.29-“and washing his face with the aid of common washing soap until it glowed a shiny red, constituted his only preparation for his evening meal. He would then get his evening paper and read in silence”…portrays the gender roles of that time, husband would come home from work and wait or his dinner to be prepared by his wife.
p.30-“The subject was put off for a little while until Hanson, through with his meal, took his paper and went into the front room”…this quote demonstrates the amount of control and authority that a husband had over his wife.
p.60-“Aw, come Carrie…what can you do alone?”…implies that she cannot take care of herself.
p.63-“but we must not forget that poor young man could not, in the nature of things, have appealed to him like a poor young girl”…two things: poor girls are vulnerable and need a man’s help and also, this quote seems to point out that homosexuality was out of the question.
p.68-“Like all women, she was there to object and be convinced”…implies that women aren’t allowed to hold true to their feelings on matters, they must be convinced otherwise in order to be steered in the right direction.
p.76-The part where Carrie mentions to Drouet that she wishes to find work and he tells her that she needs to be fixed up first. As they are leaving, Drouet continues to tell Carrie to put on all of her new things that he had bought for her. This shows that Carrie is submissive to what Drouet asks of her, that she is vulnerable.
p.152-“Well, I don’t know…I might go if you thought I’d do all right”…lack of self-confidence.
Wiki Entry 2: Sister Carrie p.185-344 (due January 22)
Pg.208- "The finality of the woman's manner took away his feeling of superiority in battle."
Pg. 209- "He crept toward her with a light in his eye that was ominous."
Pg.210- "She gazed at him--a pythoness in humor"
Pg.220- Oh, the perfidy of men. And she had loved him."
Pg.259- "He could hardly repress a smile at her simplicity."
Pg. 270- "Now he slipped his arm about her and she struggled, but in vain."
203- “he was staking her to be getting old and uninteresting. He saw her wrinkles, perhaps. She was fading, while she was still preening himself in his elegance and youth.”
212- discusses how the female gender, in their need to be protected and loved, will believe that they are in love when in fact they are not.
217- Drouet: “use everything and abuse me and then walk off. That’s just like a woman.”
242- discussing how most girls start on the stage as chorus girls
263- “Still there is something in such daring and power which is fascinating to a woman, especially if she can be made to that it is all prompted by love of her.”
283-284- “instincts of a housewife” are to enjoy the amenities of the home
291- Carrie learning to become a proper housewife by learning to cook and bake.
309- “Every fine lady must be in the crowd on Broadway in the afternoon, in the theatre at the matinee, in the coaches and dining halls at night.”
Keywords by Noelle Viau
P 250; It was not long before the imbibing began to tell. Stories began to crop up- those ever-enduring, droll stories which form the major portion of the conversation among American men under such circumstances.
P 253; Men are still led by instinct before they are regulated by knowledge.
P 254; He was drawn by such keen desire for Carrie
P 263; Still there is something in such daring and power which is fascinating to a woman, especially if she can be made to feel that it is all prompted by love of her.
P 270; This man, to whose bosom she was being pressed, was strong; he was passionate, he loved her, and she was alone. If she did not turn to him- accept of his love- where else might she go?
P 288; He failed therein to take account of the frailties of human nature- the difficulties of matrimonial life. Carrie was young. With him and with her varying mental states were common.
P 292; Now, it so happenend that from his observations of carrie he began to imagine that she was of the thouroughly domestic type of mind. He really thought, after a year, that her chief expression in life was finding its natural channel in household duties.
P 293; She gave him credit for having the usual allurements of men.
P 294; She was in a nightrobe and dressing gown, with her hair very much tousled, but she looked so pretty and good natured that Carrie instantly conceived a liking for her.
P 296; He now turned his attention to Mrs. Vance, and in a flash Carrie saw again what she for sometime had subconsciously missed in Hurstwood- the adroitness and flattery of which he was capable.
P 297; In trying, though rather unjust thought, for Carrie had now developed an equally pleasing figure, and had grown in comeliness until she was a thouroughly attractive type of her color and beauty.
P 298; not only all the pretty woman who love a showy parade, but the men who love to gaze upon and admire them.
P 298-299 She noticed suddenly that Mrs. Vance’s manner had rather stiffened under the gaze of handsome men and elegantly dressed ladies, whose glances were not modified by any rules of propriety. To stare seemed the proper and natural thing. Carrie found herself stared at and ogled……..Men in flawless topcoats, high hats, and silver-headed walking sticks elbowed near and looked too often into conscious eyes. Ladies rustled by in dresses of stiff cloth, shedding affected smiles and perfume……..The rouge and powdered chheks and lips, the scented hair, the large, misty, and languorous eye, were common enough. Pompous doormen in immense coats, shiny brass belts and buttons, waited in front of expensive salesrooms. Coachmen in tan boots, white tights, and blue jackets waited obsequiously for the mistresses of carriages who were shopping inside.
P 302; Flowers, candy, jewelry seemed the principal things in which the elegant dames were interested. Particularly she remembered one beautiful actress- the sweetheart who had been wooed and won. The grace of this woman had won Carrie’s heart.
P 303; She had constantly had her attention called by the latter to novelties in everything which pertains to a woman’s apparel.
P 304; Carrie listened to these things with considerable interest, for they were suggested with more friendliness than is usually common between pretty woman.
She looked the well-groomed woman of twenty-one.
P 305; “ I’m very glad to meet you,” said Ames, bowing politely to Carrie. The latter caught in a glance the dimensions of a very stalwart figure. She also noticed that he was smooth shaven, good looking, and young but nothing more.
P306; Ames had taken a seat beside Carrie, and accordingly he felt it his bounden duty to pay her some attention. He was interested to find her so young a wife, and so pretty, though it was only a respectful interest. There was nothing of the dashing lady’s man about him. He had respect for the married state, and thought only os some pretty marriageable girls in Indianapolis.
P 307; Young Ames held Carrie’s elbow as he helped her up the steps.
P308; The white shirt fronts of the gentlemen, the bright costumes of the ladies, diamonds, jewels, fine feathers- all were exceedingly noticeable.
P 310; He seemed to have the least touch of boyishness to Carrie, and yet he was a man full grown.
P 311; This strong young man beside her, with his clear, natural look, seemed to get a hold of thingswhich she did not quite understand, but approved of. It was fine to be so, as a man, she thought.
Carrie felt that it was just kindly thought of a high order- the right thing to think, and wondered what else was right, according to him.
P 312; This man was far ahead of her.
P 313; As they went out, he took her arm and helped her into the coach, and then they were off again, and so to the show. During the acts Carrie found herself listening to him very attentively. He mentioned things in the play which she most approved of- things which swayed her deeply……….If she were a fine actress, such men as he would approve of her.
P 315; She had an ideal to contrast men by-particularly men close to her.
P 318; He was not looking at her after all.
P 320; She began to look upon Hurstwood wholly as a man, and not as a lover or husband. She felt thoroughly bound to him as a wife.
P 327; “Dinner’s ready,” she said passing him for something………..She came in and sat down at her place, feeling exceedingly wretched.
P 328; …….. working at her dishes.
P 332; He tried to put on a business air as he went in, but it was a feeble imitation.
Here was a young, handsome woman, if you might believe the newspaper drawing, suing a rich, fat, candy-making husband in Brooklyn for divorce.
P 333; So he read, read, read, rocking in the warm room near the radiator and waiting for dinner to be served.
P 336; He saw coquettish glances cast by magnificent girls. Ah, the money it required to train with such- how well he knew!
P 337; “Yet, what have I got to do with it?” she thought. “oh, why should I be made to worry?”
P 338 “I’ll go over and see about it”, said Hurstwood. This was the first time he had ever suggested doing an errand, but somehow, the wish to sit about the house prompted it as a sort of compensation for privilege.
She fulfilled her household duties and said little to disturb him.
Now he volunteered to do a few other little things. One was to go to the butcher, another to the grocery. He really thought nothing of these little services in connection with their true significance. He felt as if he were not wholly useless.
P 340; That night he felt a cold coming on ant took quinine. He was feverish until morning, and sat about the next day while Carrie waited on him. He was a helpless creature in sickness, not very handsome in a dull-colored bathgown and his hair uncombed…….”.I’ll open your bed for you now”.
She was merely a servant to him now, nothing more.
P 341; Naturally, being about the house, he noticed the way Carrie did things. She was far from perfect in household methods and economy, and her little deviations on this score first caught his eye. Not, however, before her regular demand for her allowence became a grievous thing.
P 344; “I think I’ll sleep alone tonight. I have a headache
Notes by Laura Hall
“She recalled, with more subtle emotions, that he did not look at her now with any of the old light of satisfaction or approval in his eye. Evidently, along with other things, he was taking her to be getting old and uninteresting. He saw her wrinkles, perhaps. She was fading while he was still preening himself in his elegance and youth.”
“Well, I tell you, you can’t. As long as I’m in this house I’m master of it, and you or anyone else won’t dictate to me-do you hear?”
“Didn’t you bring him here? You told him yourself that he should come out here and take me out. Now, after it’s all over, you come and tell me that I oughtn’t to go with him and that he’s a married man.”
“Did I ask you to?” she returned.
“Well, I did it,” said Drouet, “and you took it.”
“You talk as though I had persuaded you,” answered Carrie.
“Again, the business did not pay as well as he thought. It increased a little, but he found he would have to watch his household expenses, which was humiliating.”
“Now, it so happened that from his observations of Carrie he began to imagine that she was of the thoroughly domestic type of mind. He really thought, after a year, that her chief expression in life was finding it’s natural channel in household duties."
“Carrie felt that she needed more and better clothes to compare with this woman, and that any one looking at the two would pick Mrs. Vance for her raiment alone.
“Bob, you’ll have to look after Mrs. Wheeler.”
“Just this little approval set Carrie’s heart bounding. Ah, if she could only be an actress-- a good one! This man was wise-- he knew-- and he approved of it. If she were a fine actress such men as he would approve of her.”
“This was in the mere matter of the halt his career had received when he departed Chicago. A man’s fortune on material progress is very much the same as his bodily growth. Either he is growing stronger, healthier, wiser as the youth approaching manhood, or he is growing weaker, older, less incisive mentally, as the man approaching old age. There are no other states.”
p.200-“with a toss of her head and a flick of her pretty skirts indicative of the independence and indifference she felt. She did not propose to be quarreled with.”…indicates the rebelliousness of young females from their mothers.
p.207-“She could scarcely force herself to answer, but managed to say ‘No,’ sharply”…portrays a very common tactic used by women to display their anger toward men.
P.210-‘“I’m not dictating you,” she returned; “I’m telling you what I want.”’…Mrs. Hurstwood taking over the power in the relationship after Mr. Hurstwood had wronged their marriage.
p.212-“She might have been said to be imagining herself in love, when she was not. Women frequently do this. It flows from the fact that in each exists a bias toward affection, a craving for the pleasure of being loved. The longing to be shielded, bettered, sympathized with, is one of the attributes of the sex.”…implies that women crave affection so much that whenever someone shows an interest in them, they mistake their feelings for love.
p. 229-“He was beaten for tonight and he might just as well make the best of it. But, oh, the wretchedness of being forced this way! He could see her meeting the boy at the door and smiling sardonically. She would take the envelope and know that she had triumphed.”…the marriage has turned into a war and Mr. Hurstwood believes his wife has no right to anything even though he is in the wrong.
p.242-‘“She’d never make an actress, though. Just another chorus girl—that’s all.”’…even though Carrie had some experience and dressed more sophisticatedly, she was still degraded in the workforce because of her gender.
p.280-‘“Well, then, I don’t like it,” said Carrie, who was coming to have a few opinions of her own.’…after spending time in the richer side of society, Carrie’s confidence is boosted and she feels she has a right to voice her opinion as opposed to being told what to do and accepting it.
p.288-“His one hope was that things would change for the better in a money way. He had Carrie…He failed therein to take account of the frailties of human nature—the difficulties of matrimonial life.”…communication between a husband and wife is key in a marriage, not the money.
p.291-“Hurstwood made great efforts to meet all expenditures without a show of feeling one way or the other”…males tend to view financial difficulties as very personal and a representation of themselves, so they choose to work them out on their own.
p.297-“Carrie had gotten herself up charmingly enough, but this woman pained her by contrast….Carrie felt that she needed more and better clothes to compare with this woman, and that any one looking at the two would pick Mrs. Vance for her raiment alone.”…the very common female behavior of comparing oneself to another and feeling inadequate when the other is viewed as “better”.
p.316-“A fortune, like a man, is an organism which draws to itself other minds and other strength than that inherent in the founder.”…compares men to wealth/money.
p.345-‘“All right,” he said to himself, with an irrepressible frown, “let her sleep alone.”’…too proud to approach and discuss the problem that is occurring within their marriage?
P 347; “She’s too gay”, said Hurstwood, significantly. “no one can keep up with her pace unless they’ve got a lot of money.”
P 351; “You haven’t done a thing for three months except sit around and interfere here.”
P 352; She was always a swell looker, and he had tried to put on the air of being worthy of such as she, in front of her. Now, to think she had caught him looking this way.
There would be no dinner that night.
P 355; He had treated her badly, but he could not afford to make up. Now desperation seized him, and for a day or two, going out thus, he lived like a gebtleman- or what he conceived to be a gentleman- which took money.
P 357; There must be people who would listen to and try uou- men who would give you an opportunity.
If she tried to get on the stage she would fall into the hands of some cheap manager and become like the rest of them. He had a good idea of what he meant by them. Carrie was pretty. She would get along all right, but where would he be?
P 358: It’s not much of a profession for a woman”.
P 361: Hurstwood saw her depart with some faint stirrings of shame, which were the expression of a manhood rapidly becoming stultified.
P 362; “Mrs. George Wheeler,” said Carrie, moving over to where she was writing.
P 366; He was a large and corpulent individual, surfeited with good clothes and good eating, who judged women as another would horseflesh.
P368; She forgot her youth and her beauty. The handicap of age she did not, in her enthusiasm, perceive.
P 370; It was very evident that he had a great contempt for any assumption of dignity or innocence on the part of these young women.
P 371; When Hurstwood returned he was not so elated as when he went away, and now she was obliged to drop practice and get dinner.
P 372; The regularity with which he did this smacked of someone who was waiting to live upon her labor.
“I got some lard,” he would add, as an afterthought. “ I thought maybe you might want to make some biscuit”.
P 374; “Not going home alone, are you?” he said.
“Oh, I’ll help you,” said Carrie, feeling quite hardheartend at thus forcing him to humbly appeal, and yet her desire for the benefit of her earnings wrung a faint protest from her.
P 379; To say the truth, Carrie did unconsciously move about with an air pleasing and somewhat dinstinctive. It was due wholly to her natural manner and total lack of self-consciousness.
She liked this little gaslight soldier.
Still, in the morning, when her household duties would infringe upon her and Hurstwood sat there, a perfect load to contemplate, her fate seemed dismal and unrelieved.
P 380; Twice a week there were matinees, and then Hurstwood ate a cold snack, which he prepared himself.
P 381; Carrie began neglecting her dinner hours.
P 383; “ That girl knows how to carry herself”, said the manager, another evening.
Carrie was fitted for this costume, and a few days later appeared, proud of her new laurels.
She new that she was going to far, but her feminine love of finery prevailed.
P 385; Then she can go to the deuce.
“It isn’t right that I should support him”.
Some of their pretty compliments seemed silly.
“Oh, we’ll be right back, Miss Madenda,” said one of the chaps, bowing.
p 389; “Such a man,” she said to herself frequently.
P 408; “Go to the devil, you old hag,” he half muttered as he stared round upon the scattered company.
P 411; A woman- a mere girl in appearance- was among these, bearing a rough stick.
P 414: But Carrie, whose experience and belief in herself gave her daring, curtsied sweetly agaun and answered: “Iam yours truly”. P 416; No longer the lightest word of man made ger head dizzy. She had learned that men could change and fail. Flattery in its most palpable form had lost its force with her.
P 418; He saw nothing remarkable in asking her to come down lower.
P 426; He did not talk of anything that lifted her above the common run of clothes and material success.
“She’s not so inexperienced as she looks,” he thought, and thereafter his respect and ardor were increased.
P 428; It consisted of standing around in all sorts of scenes, a silent little Quakeress.
P 429; There she was, gray suited, sweet faced, demure, but scowling.
The portly gentleman in the front rows began to feel she was a delicious little morsel. It was the kind of frown they would have loved to force away with kisses. All the gentlemen yearned toward her. She was capital.
P 433; She was no longer ordered, but requested, and that politely.
It never once crossed her mind to be reserved or haughty.
P 435; “A well-known actress like yourselk,” and he bowed politely, while Carrie flushed, “draws attention to the hotel, and- although you may not believe it-patrons.”
P 438; “I promised faithfully to be home at six.” Glancing at the small gold watch pinned to her bosom, she added: “I must be going, too. Tell me when you are coming up, if at all.
P 439; Since then, as a chorus girl, she had received others- gentlemen who prayed for an engagement.
I have a million in my own right. I could give you every luxury. There isn’t anything you could ask for that you couldn’t have. I say this, not because I want to speak of my money, but because I love you and wish to gratify your every desire. It is that love that prompts me to write. Will you not guve me one half hour in whch to plead my case?
Even there her vanity- or that self-appreciation which, in its more rabid form, is called vanity- was not sufficiently cloyed to make these things wearisome.
She smiled to think that men should find her so much more attractive.
“The idea.. Are’nt men silly?”
“That’s what they all say,” said Carrie innocently. P 440: Men sent flowers, love notes, offers of fortune.
-a man who, in distributing the envelopes, had the manner of a prince doling out favors to a servile group of petitioners.
P 443; On the billboards, too, he saw a pretty poster, showing her as the Quaker Maid, demure and dainty.
P 451; On Fifth avenue were loungers- a few wealthy strollers, a gentleman in evening dress with his lady on his arm, some clubmen passing from one smoking room to another.
P 460; “Well, you do look great,” he said. “ I never saw anybody improve so You’re taller, aren’t you?”
P 462; “A man always makes a mistake when he does anything like thar,” he observed.
She also imagined that he took it on her account.
P 463; Carrie was to him the all-desirable.
“Good night!” said Drouet, as she rustled in.
This merry frou frou of the place spoke all of her.
P 467; Carrie thrilled to be taken so seriously.
P 472’ A big motherly-looking woman invariably stood guard at the door during the entire operation and counted the admissible number.
P 464; There was much jerking of the heads, and looking down the line.
At last the door opened and the motherly looking sister appeared.
“She owes me something to eat,” he said. “She owes it to me.”
P 480; A good dinner, the company of a young woman, and an evening at the theatre were chief things for him.
“Come along with me,” said Drouet. “I can introduce you to something dead swell.” “Who is it?” said the other. “Oh, a couple of girls over here in Fortieth Street. We could have a dandy time. I was just looking for you.”
The old butterfly was as light on the wing as ever.
P 481; It was not wifely modesty at all.
Wiki Entry 3: Sister Carrie p.345-487 (due January 24)
Keywords by Megan R.
pg. 346- "He seemed to take his condition with the utmost nonchalance. His beard was at least four days old."
pg. 347- "This thing was the remains of his old-time cocksureness and independence.."
pg. 374- "She said nothing more then, objecting to giving up her own money, and yet feeling that such would have to be the case."
pg. 381- "Carrie was ashamed to say that she was married."
pg. 382- "He could not help clinging and protesting in a mild, irritating, and ineffectual way, however--a way that simply widened the breach by slow degrees."
pg. 414- "But Carrie, whose experience and belief in herself gave her daring, curtsied sweetly again and answered: "I am yours truly"
pg. 424- "She longed to be renowned like others, and read with avidity all the complimentary or critical comments made concerning others high in profession."
pg. 472- "A big motherly-looking woman invariably stood guard a t the door during the entire operation and counted the admissible number."
361- “Hurstwood saw her depart with some faint stirrings of shame, which were the expression of a manhood rapidly becoming stultified.”
363- “It’s funny how anxious these women are to get on the stage.”
368- “She forgot her youth and her beauty.”
Chapter 41- Description of desperate, haggard men who are almost animal like. The scab workers are dirty and hungry and the protesters are dirty and violent. Both men and women protest the scab workers. Both men and women are violent. There is no different in their genders within the protesting.
429- “The portly gentlemen in the front rows began to feel that she was a delicious little morsel. It was the kind of frown they would have loved to force away with kisses. All the gentlemen yearned towards her. She was capital.”
Chapter 46- Description of Carrie’s eyes and mouth. Her female ability to play dramatic.
Chapter 47- Hurst wood’s a beaten down man. He has succumbed to the city. He believes himself to be less of a man due to his circumstances and takes the cowards way out. The only way that he sees left for him. He is a nameless
p.357-“men who would give you an opportunity”…signifies that men were the ones holding the higher positions at jobs during this time.
p.380-“Hurstwood did not seem to realize that she had a right to anything”…Hurstwood wanted Carrie to pay for their living expenses without considering her need for the money as well.
p.416-“She had learned that men could change and fail. Flattery in its most palpable form had lost its force with her”…her experiences with Hurstwood and Drouet have caused her to grow a strong exterior against men and their supposed intentions.
p.429-“Carrie thought this over. She had never been on the road. ‘We can get along,’ added Lola. ‘I always have.’ Carrie did not sign.”…demonstrates her continued feature of being easily influenced by others.
p.439-In the letter that Carrie receives from a random man, it first states that he has a lot of money and could provide her with every luxury. This implies that men believe that the best way to flatter a woman is by making it clear that he is wealthy.
p.463-“Ah, what a prize! He thought.”…Drouet thinks of Carrie as an object to be won.
p.469&470-Ames tells Carrie that she should get into a different genre of acting and without taking into consideration how she truly feels about it, she agrees and mentions it to Lola.
Notes by Laura Hall
"Look for work!" he said to himself. "Look for work! She tells me to get out and look for work." He tried to shield himself from his owm mental accusation, which told him that she was right.
"Well, I do," he answered. "If I were you I wouldn't think of it. It's not much of a profession for a woman."
"It's better than going hungry," said Carrie. If you don't want me to do that why don't you get work yourself?"
"Hurstwood saw her depart and with some faint stirrings of shame, which were the expression of a manhood rapidly becoming stulfied."
"Her dawning independence gave her more courage to observe, and she felt as if she wanted to say things."
"Hurstwood felt the crisis, and artfully decided to appeal to Carrie. He had long since realized how good-natured she was, how much she would stand. There was some little shame in him at the thought of doing so, but he justified himself with the thought that he really would get something."
"On this account, Hurstwood, this very day, looked grocer Oeslogge clearly in the eye as he ordered a pound of coffee, and said: "Do you mind carrying my account until the end of every week?"
"No, no, Mr. Wheeler," said Mr. Oeslogge. "Dat iss all right."
Hurstwood, still tactfulin distress, added nothingto this. It seemed an easy thing. He looked out of the door, and then gathered up his coffee when ready and came away. The game of a desperate man had begun."
"Carrie was ashamed to say that she was married. She had talked so much about getting more salary and confessed to so much anxiety about her future, that now, when the direct question of fact was waiting, she cold not tell this girl."
"The novelty and danger of the situation modified in a way his disgust and distress at being compelled to be here,but not enough to prevent him from feeling grim and sour. This was a dog's life, he thought. It was a tough thing to have to come to." Pg. 420
"No," he said, with a sort of pride; "you keep it."
"He wondered at this, not knowing the pathetic figure he had become in her eyes."
"In the rosy restaurant, filled with the merry lovers of late hours she found herself criticizing this man. He was too stilted, too self-opinionated."
"Tactfully, Mrs. Vance avoided the subject of Hurstwood, of whom she could not help thinking. No doubt Carrie had left him. That much she surmised."
"I don't want to go with these people who write to me. I know what kind they are."
"What can a man do?" He said. "I can't starve."
"No more weakly looking object ever strolled out into the spring sunshine than the once hale, lusty manager. All his corpulency had fled."
"Oh, a couple of girls over here on Fortieth Street. We could have a dandy time. I was just looking for you."
"Supposing we get em' and take em' out to dinner?"
"As when Drouet took her, she had thought: "Now am I lifted into that which is best";as when Hurstwood seemingly offered her the better way: "Now am I happy." But since the world goes it's way past all who will not partake of its folly, she now found herself alone."
Wiki Entry 4: The Age of Innocence (entire film) (due January 31)
Keywords by Megan R.
17 minutes- Everyone denies the invitation the a dinner for the Countess due to her reputation and her not being loyal to her husband.
22 min- Ellen is out of her role as a woman when she is blunt and doesn't withold her feelings from Newland.
37 min- The divorce that Ellen asks for is looked down upon and not agreed with by the men of the law firm and it is against the culture and religion, and the community.
50 min- "I don't speak your language." said to Newland by Ellen because she cannot think and speak like a man.
67 min- Newland submits to Ellen, completly and utterly heartrenching, out of his role of being a male, bowing to the female.
70 min- Beauford says "Only target she'll ever hit." speaking of May and how she is not a fit or perfect woman and that she will never get anything right.
72 min- Granny telling Newland to "go down and fetch her", giving command to Newland, a command that would make one think that he is much like the dogs that she controls.
77 min- "I won't speak unless you tell me too!" Newland says to Ellen, showing a submissive side that is not normal for the gender roles of men.
82 min- Newland tells Ellen that he could not live without seeing her, showing once again that she is a very powerful dominant figure to him, that he is emotionally swayed by her.
92 min- Newland kisses Ellens wrists, he is overwhelmed in removing her gloves and the bare wrists of a woman is a most attractive thing.
"Keywords by Noelle Viau"
Women sit in seperate boxes from the men at the opera. The camera pans the entire opera house focusing and zooming in on all the jewelry and accessories everyone was wearing. Men were wearing boutineers, pocket watches. Women were wearing beautiful bracelets, broaches, and dangling diamond earings.
Countess Olenska is pubicly and socially shunned because she left her husband. She was considered to have disgraced the family.
5:47 Archer wearing a white gardenia or magnolia boutineer
6:03 Ellen parading up 5th ave. with Julius Beauford
Beauford is attempting to court Ellen
6:11 Countess Olenska gets up abruptly mid conversation with a gentlemen to go talk with Archer. It was made clear that was not something a woman does.
Archer wants to push up the wedding and granny wants them to wait so they can "become acquainted and get to know one another".
Archer sends May flowers everyday.
6:12 Ellen is flirting with Archer
6:22 Street Ellen lives on is not fashionable therefore she must move. People are always telling her what she should do; divorce vs. not divorcing etc. Dependent on family allowence for survival.
6:23 Ellen smoking with Archer by the fire.
6:24 Archer comforts Ellen and rests his hand upon hers.
6:25 Archer sends her yellow roses as was done in the opera they both attended.
6:30 May will not cross her mother/granny on the wedding date.
Social customs do not condone divorce for women, it is seen as shameful and offensive behavior.
6:45 May asks Archer to look in and take care of Ellen while she is in St Augustine, Fl.
6:50 Archer goes to Ellen at a Vanderliden's weekend home and asks her what she is running from and fantasizes her embrace. Julius shows up which sends him into a jealous fit of anger.
They send forbidden notes back and forth and have secret rendevous.
6:55 May senses there is someone else, another woman.
Archer/Narrator refers to May as possessing inexpressive girlishness and absence of imagination.
May- "Wasn't he kind of common"?
May- " You haven't kissed me today".
May starts to evolve and transition from a girl to a woman with an agenda.
May has her hands molded in marble on their honeymoon.
Granny sends Archer to go fetch Ellen when May and he come for a visit.
Granny sends Archer to pick up Ellen from the ferry terminal from Boston where they share a moment together.
7:00 Ellen- " My maid's not with me".
Archer- " You're traveling alone"? " It is unconventional".
Archer attempts to tell May about his intentions.
7:25 Archer reading note from the Countess in the dark.
Society has a way of tolerating vulgar women.
My keywords are in note form...hope that's OK.
-Both men and women are very respectable to one another, very proper.
-On the subject of Newland and May’s marriage, it did not matter that they didn’t really know each other all that well before marrying each other.
-Newland and May both came from two popular families, so their marriage was seen as a significant event in combining the two families.
-Countess Ellen Olenska was a very independent character. She did not truly abide by the guidelines of the wealthier people in those days. Also, she was not afraid to speak her mind to men, especially Newland. When discussing some topic (I can’t remember what it was), Ellen asked Newland if May shares his views and he responds with, “If she did, she wouldn’t speak them”. This implies that typical women of those times left the voicing of opinions and views to the men, they kept them private.
-When discussing get-togethers, Ellen Olenska mentions that feels as though she is pretending to be what everyone expects her to. She tries to fit the role of the typical woman of those times because she does not want to disgrace her family.
-Women of these times, as shown in the film, adhere to what others tell them to do. May is the best example of this. For instance, when Newland comes to her and expresses that he wants to get married much sooner than planned and May is skeptical, she still gives in.
-On the subject of divorce, it is frowned upon during these times. We see this when Newland is discussing Ellen Olenska’s divorce case with his superior (can’t remember the name), and the superior says “Divorce is always unpleasant” and tells Newland to do what he can to make sure Ellen changes her mind about the decision to divorce her husband.
-When Julius Beaufort is visiting Ellen and Newland stops by to discuss her divorce, you get a sense of male competition. Beaufort is telling Ellen that he wants to take her to view some art and Newland adds that he knows some artists in the area that he wants to introduce her to. Maybe it’s just me, but I sense some competition.
-Another instance of women remaining silent about their views and opinions is when May questions Newland about another woman. When she finally succumbs to his responses, the narrator describes Newland’s comfort when May returns to her “inexpressive girlishness”, which means that Newland feels in control when May doesn’t question him or express her doubts.
-When Newland goes to Boston (?) and meets with Ellen, she tells him that she is traveling alone. His response to this is that it is “unconventional for a woman to travel alone”, which shows the lack of independence in women during these times.
-Because May and Newland married without knowing one another on a deeper level, Newland expresses to Ellen that he has a “false life with May”. This shows that in the upper class, marrying for love was a rare thing.
Scene 3- Women were expected to dress formally for the theatre or a ball, men wore tuxes.
Scene 4- May’s grandmother lives on the ground floor of her home due to weight issues, but it is mentioned that it is customary for only ladies of the night to occupy the lower floors of a home. -Ellen does not attend the ball because she feels that her dress is too plain.
- the question is asked: “should women have the same freedoms as men?”
Scene 6- it is considered rude for a woman to leave the company of one man (in a drawing room) to converse with another.
Scene 9- For a woman, Ellen, to get a divorce is a complete scandal.
Scene 13- May is mentioned as being overly girly because of he anxiety about her relationship.
Scene 15- “There is no use trying to emancipate a wife who hadn’t the dimmest notion she was not free.”
Scene 17- It is a concern, from the man’s perspective, that Ellen should be traveling alone without a maid.
Scene 23- “It was the custom in old New York for brides to appear in their wedding dress during the first year or two of marriage.”
Notes by Laura Hall
Ellen leaves the company of one man to seek the company of Archer.
Archer says, "you will be traveling alone, in New York?"
Ellen says, "yes, why, is it too damgerous?"
Archer replies, "no, just unconventional."
Archer and May have to get permission to set a wedding date from May's mother and grandmother. The marriage has to be socially fitting and systematically approved.
Archer says to Ellen in a conversation addressing why everyone finds it neccessary to meddle in eachothers business, "fashion is only serious to those with nothing more serious to consider."
The following are comments made by May which exemplify her self proclaimed inability to comprehend things due to her womanhood:
Narrator says, "there is no sense in trying to emancipate a wife who hasn't the dimmest notion she wasn't free."
Archer says, "i want to invite him over i thought he was rather clever."
May says, "wasn't he kind of common?"
Archer says, "i thought he was clever."
May says, "i suppose i wouldn't know if he was clever or not."
Archer is making an excuse to go to Washington to see ellen for a patent case and starts to explain the process and May says, "oh,no need to explain, i wouldn't understand. I can't even manage this lamp."
May asks Archer,"what are you reading?"
Archer says,"oh, it's a book about Japan."
Wiki Entry 5: Jazz p.1-87 (due February 5)
pg. 5- "She questioned everybody, starting with Malvonne, an upstairs neighbor--the one who told her about Joe's dirt in the first place and whose apartment he and the girl used as a love nest."
pg. 12- "Her lips don't turn down in judgment. Her face is calm, generous and sweet."
pg. 14- "Men wear you down to a sharp piece of gristle if you let them."
pg. 18-19- "Dumfrey women were graceful, citified ladies whose father owned a store on 136th Street, and themselves had nice paper-handling jobs:..."
pg. 20- "The disgust in the mans voice brought tears to the girls eyes."
pg. 23- "She had been a snappy, determined girl and hardworking young woman, with the snatch-gossip tongue of a beautician."
pg. 38- "But she did remember, and she told him so about the slap across her face, the pop and sting of it and how it burned."
pg. 46- "Ain't many women like you understand the problems men have with their wives."
pg.49- "Violet takes better care of her parrot then she does me."
pg. 56- "...such as not just ankles but knees in full view; lip rogue red as hellfire; burnt matchsticks rubbed on eyebrows; fingernails tipped with blood-you couldn't tell the street walkers from the mothers."
pg. 77- "Black women were armed; black women were dangerous and the less money they had the deadlier the weapon they chose."
""Noelle Viau"" Foreword Xvii: Right on top of crepe dresses is an evening purse, tiny, jeweled with fringe dangled in jet and glass.
With the betrayed wife intent on killing her rival.
Xix: I know that woman. I know her skirt size, what side she sleeps on. I know the name of her hair oil, its scent……….
My new man has left me just a room and bed.
When my man starts kicking I let him find a new home.
Page 3; He fell for an eighteen year old with one of those deep down, spooky loves that made him so sad and happy, he shot her just to keep the feeling going.
Pg 4: because she had a more or less able husband.
Violet is mean enough and good looking enough to think that even without hips or youth she could punish Joe by getting herself a boyfriend and letting him visit her own house.
Pg 5; Violet’s next plan- to fall back in love with her husband- whipped her before it got on a good footing. Washing his handkerchiefs and putting food on the table before him was the most she could manage.
-the one who told her about Joe’s dirt in the first place and whose apartment he and the girl used as a love nest.
……what kind of lip rouge the girl wore; the marcelling iron they used on her……. …….except for his vocalist who must be a woman since why else would he let her insult his band.
Pg 6 ; a dignified lady who did fine work off and on in the garment district.
Pg 7: Big-legged women with pink kitty tongues roll money into green tubes for later on;
Pg 8: I haven’t got any muscles, so I can’t really be expected to defend myself.
I’ve seen the eyes of black Jews, brimful of pity for everyone not themselves, graze the food stalls and the ankles of loose women, while a breeze stirs the white plumes on the helmets og the UNIA men.
…a girl talks earnestly to a man in a straw hat. He touches her lip to removea bit of something there. Suddenly she is a quiet. He tilts her chin up. They stand there. Her grip on her purse slackens and her neck makes a nice curve. The man puts his hand on the stone wall above her head. By the way jis jaw moves and the turn of his head I know he has a golden tongue.
Pg 9: ….while your partner overstays at another appointment, or promises to give you exclusive attention after supper, but is falling asleep just as you have begun to sepak- pg 11: ….there are lists drawn up by the wives for the husband hunting an open market, and the sheets impossible to hang out in snowfall drape kitchens like the curtains of Abyssinian Sunday school plays.
A last courtship full of smiles and little presents.
Pg 12: The girl’s face looks greedy, haughty and ver lazy.
Violet and Joe have arranged their furnishings in a way that might not remind anybody of the rooms in Modern Homemaker but it suits the habits of the body,…….
Pg 14: “Men wear you down to a sharp piece of gristle if you let them”.
“Women wear me down. No man ever wore me down to nothing. It’s these hungry little girls acting like women. Not content with boys their own age, no they want somebody old enough to be their father. Switching round with lipstick, see-through stockings, dresses up to their you-know-what……”
…..and how he’s not to blame because he was just walking down the street minding his own business, when this little twat jumped on his back and dragged him off to her bed. ………..
pg 15: ……when she isn’t worrying about his loss of appetite, his insomnia, she wonders what color were Dorcas’ eyes.
Pg 16; They are all like that, these women.
Pg 17:……which pleased the slow moving whores, who never hurried anything but love.
Pg 18; She was very surprised because the Dumfrey women were graceful, citified ladies whose father owned a store on 136th street, and themselves had nice paper handling jobs:…..
Pg 23: She didn’t used to be that way. She had been a snappy, determined girl and a hard working young woman, with the snatch-gossip tongue of a beautician.
Pg 28: But for Joe it is different. That girl had been his necessary thing for three months of nights. He remembers his memories of her; how thinking about her as he lay in bed next to Violet was the way he entered sleep.
Pg 29; When he called on Sheila to deliver her Cleopatra order, he entered a roomful of laughing, teasing women- and there she was, standing at the door, holding it open for him- the same girl that had distracted him in the drug store; the girl buying candy and ruining her skin had moved him so his eyes burned. Then, suddenly there in Alice Manfred’s doorway, she stood, toes pointing in, hair braided, not even smiling but welcoming him in for sure. For sure. Otherwise he would not have had the audacity, the nerve, to whisper to her at the door as he left.
Pg 31; Some well-shod women with two young girls, a preacherly kind of man with a watch chain and a rolled brim hat might stand up………..
Pg 32; Her hipbones rubbed his thigh as they stood in the aisle unable to stop smiling.
Pg 34…..what a woman looks like moving in a crowd or how shocking her profile is against the backdrop of the East River.
……….And he think it was the woman he wanted, and not some combination of curved stone, and a swinging, high heeled shoe moving in and out of sunlight.
Pg 35: That kind of fascination, permanent and out of control, seizes children, young girls, men of every description, mothers brides, and barfly women, and if they have their way and get to the City, they feel more like themselves, more like the people they always believed they were.
Pg 36: …..lame gowns of chorus girls,………….
I have seen women stir shirts into boiled starch or put the tiniest stiches into their hose while a girl straightens the hair of her sister at the stove, and all the while heaven, unnoticed and as beautiful as an Iroquois, drifts past their windows.
And time enough, when the sun sinks, to tell his new love things he never told his wife.
Pg 37: Her hand, her fingers poking through the blossoms, touching his; maybe letting him touch hers.
…..and laughs a low sweet babygirl laugh in the cane.
Pg 38; She cries again and Joe holds her close.
By the time she had pushed back his cuticles, cleaned his nails and painted them with clear polish.
Pg 39; She likes to know that the hands lifting and turning her under the blanket have been done by her. Lotioned by her with cream from a jar of something from his sample case.
Sometimes he covers her mouth with the palm of his hand so no one passing in the hall will hear her.
Pg 40; ….his thoughts are with this young good God young girl who blesses his life and makes him wish he had never been born.
Pg 41; She knew who had a passion for justice as well as ladies’ undergarmenrs, who loved his wife and who shared one.
Pg 42; ……complaining to her husband who worked in the Canal Zone about the paltriness and insufficiency of the money he had sent her- money of so little help she was giving up her job, picking up the children and returning to Barbados.
Pg 43…. Her hips constrained by the clutch of small children.
Pg 46; Why you ask me, a woman, for a hot bed?”
Pg 47….don’t care what he tear up cause you a woman”
Pg 49; “Don’t you take up with no woman if her kids is little, Joe.”
I sell beauty products all over town, you ever heard of me chasing women?”
Now I’m trying to lighten my life a little with a good lady, like a decent man would, that’s all.
Any other man be running around, steppimg out every night, you know that. I ain’t like that. I ain’t.
…..and he stepped out every night as the girl demanded.
He became a Thursday man and Thursday men are satisfied.
P51; ……one of them will turn her head to the side, and sway, enchanted with her waistline and the shape of her hips.
P 55: …Gay Northeasters and the City Belles.
P 56; …..as not just ankles but knees in full view; lip rouge red as hellfire; burnt match sticks burned on eyebrows; fingernails tipped with blood- you couldn’t tell the street walkers from the mothers. And the men, you know,, the things they thought nothing of saying out loud to any woman who passed by could not be repeated before children.
Pg 63; Or that he, holding your breasts, won’t wish they were some other way.
Pg 64; There was a night in her sixteenth year when Dorcas stood in her body and offered it to either of the brothers for a dance.
Pg 66; Immediately both girls are snatched by male hands and spun into the dancing center of the room.
Dorcas dances well---…….and she is provocative.
Adoring looks from girls, congratulating punches and slaps from the boys.
Pg 67; Dorcas has been acknowledged, appraised and dismissed in the time it takes for a needle to find its opening groove.
Pg 69; Violet’s determination to grow an ass she swore she once owned was killing him.
Woman noise could be heard through the door. Joe rang anyway.
Pg 70; “Come on over here man, and sit yourself down. Fix you a plate? Let me fix you a plate.” He protested; they insisted……”Eat, baby eat,” they said.
They thought men were ridiculous and delicious and terrible, taking every opportunity to let them know that they were.
Pg 71; Joe Trace counted on flirty laughing women to buy his wares……
Pg 73; One defenseless girl.
Who warned young girls away from hooch joints and the men who lingered there. Women teased him because they trusted him.
Pg 74; Man kills wife. Eight accused of rape dismissed. Woman and girl victims of. Woman commits suicide. White attackers indicted. Five women caught. Woman says man beat. In jealous rage man.
Or, like Dorcas, easy prey.
Pg 76; and he left their women alone. Liked among the women because he made them feel like girls; liked by girls because he made them feel like women.
….the damnation of pregnancy without marriageability.
They spoke firmly but carefully about her body: sitting nasty (legs open); sitting womanish (legs crossed)……..The moment she got breasts they were bound and resented, a resentment that increases to outright hatred of her pregnant possibilities and never stopped until she married Louis Manfred, when suddenly it was the opposite.
Pg 78; Were the women fondled in kitchens and the back of stores?
Pg 81 “I was a good girl her age. Never gave a speck of trouble. I did everything anybody told me to. Till I got here. City make you tighten up.”
Pg 82; But I wanted to see what kind of girl he’d rather me be.”
P86; ……..signaling where the hussy had been.
4- “Violet is mean enough and good looking enough to think that even without hips or youth she could punish Joe by getting herself a boyfriend and letting him visit her in her own house.”
14- “These women always need their hair done..”
14- “Men wear you down to a sharp piece of gristle if you let them.”
14- “Women wear me down. No man ever wore me down to nothing. It’s these little hungry girls acting like women.”
23- “She had been a snappy, determined girl and a hardworking young woman, with the snatch-gossip tongue of a beautician.”
28- Joe remembering Dorcus as a sensual woman.
34- “The woman who churned a man’s blood as she leaned all alone on a fence on a country road might expect not even to catch his eye in the City.”
49- “He became a Thursday man and Thursday men are satisfied.”
51- “In front of the mirror near the door one of them will turn her head to the side, and sway, enchanted with her waistline and the shape of her hips.”
56- “such as not just ankles but knees in full view; lip rouge red as hellfire; burnt matchsticks rubbed on eyebrows; fingernails tipped with blood--you couldn’t tell the streetwalkers from the mothers.”
70- “They were women his age mostly, with husbands, children, grandchildren too. Hard workers for themselves and anyone who needed them. And they thought men were ridiculous and delicious and terrible, taking every opportunity to let them know what they were.”
p.4-“Violet is mean enough and good looking enough to think that even without hips or youth she could punish Joe by getting herself a boyfriend and letting him visit in her own house”…tells a little about her character as well as the lack of faith in their marriage
p.23-“She had been a snappy, determined girl and a hardworking young woman, with the snatch-gossip tongue of a beautician. She liked, and had, to get her way.”…shows her strength as a woman and that she has experience in taking care of herself.
p.28-“That girl had been his necessary thing for three months of nights”…shows unfaithfulness in their marriage.
p.33-“And in the beginning when they first arrive, and twenty years later when they and the City have grown up, they love that part of themselves so much that they forget what loving other people was like—if they ever knew, that is…what they start to love is the way a person is in the City”…demonstrates the power that the City has over people and when they become one with it, they forget everything that once mattered to them, even their spouses.
p.34-“The woman who churned a man’s blood as she leaned all alone on a fence by a country road might not expect even to catch his eye in the City. But if she is clipping quickly down the big-city street in heels, swinging her purse, or sitting on a stoop with a cold beer in her hand, dangling her shoe from the toes of her foot, the man, reacting to her posture, to soft skin on stone, is captured”…the City shifts the expectations and desires for women. They must become something else in order to be noticed by men.
p.47-“Joe, you want to rent Sweetness’ room to bring another woman in here while I’m gone just cause Violet don’t want no part of you. What kind a person you think I am? Okay there’s no love lost between Violet and me, but I take her part, not yours, you old dog.”…Women stand up for themselves as well as for other women.
p.49-“Of course he wasn’t, but he did it anyway. Sneaked around, plotted, and stepped out every night the girl demanded.”…Joe is controlled by the need for another woman.
Notes by Laura Hall
Pg.4 "Regardless of the grief Violet caused, her name was brought up at the January meeting of the Salem Women's Club as someone needing assistance, but it was voted down because only prayer-not money-could help her now, because she had a more or less able husband (who needed to stop feeling sorry for himself), and because a man and his family on 134th Street had lost everything."
Pg.9 "I agree that I close off in places, but if you have been left standing, as I have, while your partner overstays at another appointment, or promises to give you exclusive attention after supper, but is falling asleep just as you have begun to speak-well, it can make you inhospitable if you aren't careful, the last thing I want to be."
Pg.14 "Women wear me down. No man ever wore me down to nothing."
Pg.29 "He recalls dates, of course, events, purchases, activity, even scenes. But he has a tough time trying to catch what it felt like."
Pg.42 "Malvonne didn't have a dollar bill to spare for Lila Spencer's entrance fee, but she did worry that if the girl did not get to be a lawyer she would end up with an apron job."
Pg.46 "Okay there's no love lost between Violet and me, but I take her part, not yours, you old dog."
Pg.47 "You won't. Why would you do that? I'm still taking care of her. Nobody getting hurt."
Pg.48 "But believe me, girl, you won't know when or if I come and go."
Pg.48 "I don't want nothing orney, and I don't want to be hanging out in clubs and such. I just want some nice female company."
Pg.63 "By the time she was seventeen her whole life was unbearable. And when I think about it, I know just how she felt. It is terrible when there is absolutely nothing to do or worth doing except to lie down and hope when you are naked she won't laugh at you. Or that he, holding your breasts, won't wish they were some other way."
Pg.67 "Then, just as the music, slow and smoky, loads up the air, his smile bright as ever, he wrinkles his nose and turns away. Dorcas has been acknowledged, appraised and dismissed in the time it takes for a needle to find it's opening groove."
Pg.72 "I always believed that girl was a pack of lies. I could tell by her walk her underclothes were beyond her years, even if her dress wasn't."
Pg.76 "Liked among women because he made them feel like girls; liked by girls because he made them feel like women- which she thought, was what Dorcas was looking for."
Wiki Entry 6: Jazz p.89-162 (due February 7)
Keywords by Megan R.
pg.91- "--these hands were reaching toward the blade she had not seen for a month at least and was surprised to see now aimed at the girl's haughty, secret face.
pg. 91-92 "...why they had just stood there like streetlights and let this woman in a fur-collared coat make fools of them and ruin the honorable job they had worn white gloves for."
pg. 93-94 "The hips she came here with were gone, too, just like the power in her back and arms."
pg. 94 "But if that Violet was strong and had hips, why was she proud of trying to kill a dead girl, and she was proud."
pg. 103 "She had lain down one night, sulking and abashed, a little way from her sisters, but not too far."
pg. 105 "It was there where the palms of her hands and soles of her feet grew shields no gloves or shoes could match."
pg. 107 "Years later, however, when Violet was 40, she was already staring at infants, hesitating in front of toys displayed at Christmas."
pg. 109 "Was she the woman who took the man, or the daughter who fled her womb?"
pg. 114 "Commited as Violet was to hip development, even she couldn't drink the remaining malt-watery, warm and flat-tasting."
pg. 145 "He does not see himself touching her, but the picture he does imagine is himself walking away from her a second time, climbing into his carriage and leaving her a second time."
Wiki Entry 6: Jazz p.89-162 (due February 7)
p91: ….to see now aimed at the girl’s haughty, secret face.
P94: How could they if she found herself stuck on a man old enough to be her father?
Did he ask her to warm with her own body his spot in the bed on cold winter nights before he slid in?
P95: ….on the inside of his thigh, his thigh, his thigh, thigh, thigh, and he bought her underwear with stitching done to look like rosebuds and violets, VIOLETS, don’t you know, and she wore it for him thin as it was and too cold for a room that couldn’t count on a radiator to work through the afternoon, while I was there?
P 96: ; make any woman dream about him in the daytime so hard she miss the rut and have to work hard to get the mules back on track.
P 97: , who I never saw but who tore up my girlhood as surely as if we’d been the best of lovers?
P 102: Rumor was the pay was ten cents for young women, a quarter for men.
P 105: His buttonless shirt open to a knot at the waist exposed a chest she claimed as her own smooth pillow.
Powerfully strong young woman who could handle mules, bale hay and chop wood as good as any man.
P 108; Just when her breasts were finally flat enough not to need the binders the young woman wore to sport the chest of a soft boy, just when her nipples had lost their point, mother-hunger had hit her like a hammer.
Pg 112; “He’ll do it again, you know. And again and again and again.”
Pg 114: Committed as Violet was to hip development, even she couldn’t drink the remaining malt- watery, warm and flat tasting.
Pg 118; A strange sight you hardly ever see: men crying so openly. It is not a thing they do.
Pg 119; He cut his eyes over to the sweetbacks lounging on the corner. There is something they have he wants…………Women he can get to talk to, look at, flirt with and who knows what else is on his mind? And if she gives him more than the time of day with a look, the watching eyes of the sweetbacks are more satisfying than hers.
Pg 120; She was Joe’s personal sweet-like candy.
Pg 121; Where his private candy box opens for him.
“It’s not a thing you tell to another man” …..They do it because the woman don’t matter all that much and they don’t care what folks think about her.
Pg 122; this was like something else. More like blue water and white flowers, and sugar in the air.
The women gathered around and I showed them what I had while they laughed and did the things women do; flicked lint off my jacket, pressed me on the shoulder to make me sit down. It’s a way they have of mending you, fixing what they think needs repair.
She leaned her hip on the back of a chair in the parlor, while the women streamed out of the dining room to mend me and joke me.
You get to know the woman who wants four glasses of something, but doesn’t ask four times; so you wait till her glass is two-thirds down and fill it up again.
Pg 123; …..and that light woman-sweat. Salty. Not bitter like a man’s is.
Pg 125; The second change came when I was picked out and trained to be a man. To live independent and feed myself no matter what.
Pg 129; Shoot. Country boy; country man. How did I know what an eighteen year old girl might instigate in a grown man whose wife is sleeping with a doll?
Convince me I never knew the sweet side of anything until I tasted her honey.
P 130; I didn’t even have to work at it. Didn’t even have to think.
Pg 132; …..and they shone like patent leather. Smooth. Couldn’t be more than twenty, twenty-two. Young.
City men, you know what I mean. Closed off to themselves, wise young roosters. Didn’t have to do a thing- just wait for the chicks to pass by and find them.
Pg 133; Thet don’t have to trail anybody, look ignorant in a beauty parlor asking for a girl in front of a woman who couldn’t wait for me to leave so they could par on to the sooty music and talk about what the hell did I want to know about a girl not out of high school yet and wasn’t I married to old crazy Violet?
…..you crossed your legs at the knees so I could see the green shoes you carried out the house in a paper sack so your aunt wouldn’t know you tapped down Lenox and up Eigth in them instead of the oxfords you left the house in. While you flicked your foot, turned your ankles for admiration of the heels, I looked at your knees but I didn’t touch. I told you again that you were the reason Adam ate the apple and its core. That when he left Eden, he left a rich man. Not only did he have Eve, but he had the taste of the first apple in the world in his mouth for the rest of his life. The very first to know what it was like. To bite it, bite it down. Hear the crunch and the red peeling of his heart.
Pg 134; Later on, after we had a place and a routine, I brought you treats, worrying each time what to bring that would make you smile and come again the next time.
Cologne in a blue bottle that smelled like a whore.
Your first time. And mine, in a manner of speaking.
I would strut out of the Garden, strut! As long as you held on to my hand, girl! Dorcas, girl, your first time and mine. I chose you. Nobody gave you to me.
Pg 139; ….., admit she needed to look for a husband- they were wrong.
Pg 140…..whatever Miss Vera Louise wanted or needed, including doing her laundry, some of which had to be soaked overnight in vinegar once a month.
Pg 141; ….. and gathered himself together to do an appropriate thing: slap Vera Louise into the serving table.
Only breeding, careful breeding, did not allow her to spit.
Pg 144; …..the pride he takes in his horse; the nausea the woman provoked.
Pg 149; ……like the filthy woman snoring on the cot.
Pg 165; Pregnant girls were the most susceptible, but so were the grandfathers. ………So all the warnings the girls got were part of a whole group of things to look out for lest the baby come here craving or favoring the mother’s distraction. Who would have thought old men needed to be cautioned too; told and warned against seeing, smelling or even hearing her?
Pg 166; Just thinking about her, whether she was close or not, could mess up a whole morning’s work.
He was sure he was tending a sweet but abused young girl at first, but when she bit him, he said, Oh she’s wild.
Pg 167; Unwarned, they weren’t prepared for the way their blood felt when they caught a glimpse of her, or for how trembly their legs got hearing that babygirl laugh.
Notes by Laura Hall
Pg.91 "They had to forget right away that this was a fifty-year-old woman in a fur-collared coat and a hat pulled down so far over her right eye it was a wonder she saw the door to the church not to speak of the right place to aim her knife."
Pg.95 "Take her to Indigo on Saturday and sit way in the back so they could hear the music wide and and be in the dark at the same time, at one of those round tables with a slick black top and a tablecloth of pure white on it, drinking rough gin with that sweet red stuff in it so it looked like soda pop, which a girl like her ought to have ordered instead of liquor she could sip from the edge of a glass wider at the mouth than at its base, with a tiny stem like a flower in between while her hand , the one that wasn't holding the glass shaped like a flower, was under the table drumming out the rhythm on the inside of his thigh.......
Pg.97 "Who was he thinking of when he ran in the dark to meet me in the cane field? Somebody golden, like my own golden boy, who I never ever saw but eho tore up my girlhood as surely as if we'd been the best of lovers?"
Pg.102 "The important thing, the biggest thing Violet got out of that was to never never have children. Whatever happened, no small dark foot would rest on another while a hungry mouth said, Mama?"
Pg.105 "It was there she bacame the powerfully strong young woman who could handle mules, bale hay and chop wood as good as any man. It was there where the palms of her hands and the soles of her feet grew shields no gloves or shoes could match."
Pg.110 "We women, me and you. Tell me something real. Don't just say I'm grown and ought to know."
Pg.119 "Very little in his case of Cleopatra is something men would want to buy- except for aftershave, dusting powder, most of it is for women. Women he can get to talk to, look at, flirt with and who knows what else is on his mind?"
Pg.121 "It's not a thing you tell to another man. I know most men can't wait to tell eachother about what they got going on the side. Put all their business in the street."
Pg.129 "I had it made. In 1925 we all had it made. Then Violet started sleeping with a doll in her arms. Too late. I understood in a way. In a way."
Pg.132 "City men, you know what I mean. Closed off to themselves, wise, yound roosters. Didn't have to do a thing- just wait for the chicks to pass by and find them."
Pg.147 "It has two rooms: a cot in each, table, chair, fireplace, cookstove in one. Modest, lived in, male, but otherwise no indication of the personality of it's owner."
p.99-Entire second paragraph shows the grandmother, True Belle, coming to the aid of her daughter, Rose, when times were rough.
p.102-“The important thing, the biggest thing Violet got out of that was to never never have children. Whatever happened, no small dark foot would rest on another while a hungry mouth said, Mama?”…her own experience left her with negative thoughts about having to support and raise children with little money.
p.105-“It was there she became the powerfully strong young woman who could handle mules, bale hay and chop wood as good as any man. It was there where the palms of her hands and the soles of her feet grew shields no gloves or shoes could match.”…a woman doing a man’s work, and better.
p.107-“Joe didn’t want babies either so all those miscarriages—two in the field, only one in her bed—were more inconvenience than loss. And citylife would be so much better without them.”…he doesn’t want to carry the burden of having children, or a family, in the city.
p.112-“He’ll do it again, you know. And again and again and again.”…shows that women have little faith in men who’ve wronged once before.
p.119-“A strange sight you hardly ever see: men crying so openly. It’s not a thing they do.”…gender stereotype that men have to always be strong, crying shows weakness.
p.121-“I know most men can’t wait to tell each other about what they got going on the side. Put all their business in the street. They do it because the women don’t matter all that much and they don’t care what folks think about her.”…men’s perception of women is that they are mere objects and they brag about who they’re sleeping with in order to be looked upon as a real man.
p.160-“He thought she would be his lance and shield; now he would have to be on his own.”…the learning of independence
92- “She had not been that strong since Virginia, since she loaded hay and handled the mule wagon like a full grown man.”
97- “What did she see, young girl like that, barely out of high school, with unbraided hair, lip rouge for the first time and high-heeled shoes?”
108- Violet fantasizing about being a mother to a young girl.
112- “By this time the women had become so easy with each other talk wasn’t always necessary.”
118- “A strange sight you hardly ever see: men crying so openly. It’s not a thing they do.”
122- “The women gathered around and I showed them what I had while they laughed and did the things women do: flicked lint off my jacket, pressed me on the shoulder to make me sit down. It’s a way they have of mending you, fixing what they think needs repair.”
132- “City men, you know what I mean. Closed off to themselves, wise, young roosters.”
155- “Why doesn’t he wipe her face, I wonder. She is more savage perhaps that way.”
Wiki Entry 7: Jazz p. 165-229 (due February 12)
pg 167: If he handled it right, maybe she would have stayed in the house, nursed her baby, learned how to dress and talk to folks.
Pg 171: Under the dirt, lacing her coal-black skin, were traces of bad things, like tobacco juice, brine and a craftsman’s sense of play.
“Where you pick up a wild woman?” “In the woods. Where wild women grow.”
Pg 172: A son ain’t what a woman say. A son is what a man do.
Pg 173: Girls can do that. Steer a man away from death or drive him right to it.
Pg 175: “I taught both you all never kill the tender and nothing female if you can help it.”
“You know, that woman is somebody’s mother and somebody ought to take care.”
Pg 179: But now they were full of her, a simple-minded woman too silly to beg for a living. To brain-blasted to do what the meanest sow managed: nurse what she birthed.
There are boys that have whores for mothers and don’t get over it.
Pg 180: She is female. And she is not prey.
Pg 181: The girls have red lips and their legs whisper to each other through silk stockings.
Pg 182: A power they will exchange for the right to be overcome, penetrated. The men at their side love it because, in the end, they will reach in, extend, get back behind that power, grab it and keep it still.
Plus I know how to treat a woman. I never have, never would mistreat one. Never would make a woman live like a dog in a cave. The roosters would.
Pg 188: …..but you don’t need either because a touch on the knee, accidental or on purpose, alerts the blood like a shot of pre-Pro bourbon or two fingers pinching your nipple.
Men groan their satisfaction; women hunt anticipation
Pg 190; “Acton, now tells me when he doesn’t like the way I fix my hair. Then I do it how he likes it. I never wear glasses when he is with me and I changed my laugh for him to one he likes better….. And I play with my food now. Joe liked for me to eat it all up and want more. Acton gives me a quiet look when I ask for seconds. He worries about me that way. Joe never did. Joe didn’t care what kind of woman I was. He should have. I cared. I wanted to have a personality and with Acton I am getting one.
Pg 191: The whole front of us touches. Nothing can get between us we are so close. Lots of girls here want to be doing this with him.
“He is coming for me. And when he does he will see I’m not his anymore. I’m Acton’s and it’s Acton I want to please. He expects it.
Pg 197: She usually wore a coat on warm days like this to keep the men at curbside from shaking their heads in pity when she walked by.
Pg 199” “My father preferred to stay in a bathrobe and be waited on for a change while he read the stacks of newspapers me and my grandmother saved for him.
My grandmother is very very careful not to wrinkle or soil them.
Pg 201: Slipping on vampy underwear on at my house to go walking in.
Guys looked at her, whistled and called out fresh stuff when we walked down the street.
Pg 203: “She wanted to impress Acton. A hard job since he criticized everything. He never gave her gifts the way the old man did. I know she took the stuff from him because Mrs. Manfred would die before she bought slippery underwear or silk stockings for Dorcas. Things she couldn’t wear at home or to church.
Pg 206: “ I think he likes women, and I don’t know anybody like that.
Pg 207: Later on Mrs. Trace brought him a plate full of old-people food; vegetable stuff with rice and the cornbread right on top. He said, “Thank you, baby. Take half for yourself.” When my father says thanks, it’s just a word. Mr. Trace acted like he meant it. And when he leaves the room and walks past his wife, he touches her. Sometimes on the head. Sometimes just a pat on the shoulder.
Pg 212: He was looking at my face, not my body, so I don’t know why I was nervous alone in the room with him. I never saw a needier creature in my life.
Pg 216: “I didn’t have a fellow for the party.”
“What the hell did she win? He treated her bad, but she didn’t think so. She spent her time figuring out how to keep him interested in her. Plotting what she would do to any girl who tried to move in. That’s the way all the girls I know think: how to get, then hold on to, a guy and most of that is having friends who you want to have him, and enemies who don’t.
pg 226: She looked frail to him, and penetrable everyplace except at one foot, the left, where her man’s work shoe remained.
Pg 227: In the T-strap shoes of Long Island debutantes, the sparkling fringes of daring short skirts that swish and glide to music that intoxicates them more than the champagne. It is in the eyes of the old men who watch these girls, and the young ones who hold them up. It is in the graceful slouch of the men slipping their hands into the pockets of their tuxedo trousers……..And when they take the arms of the T-strap girls and guide them away from the crowd and the too-bright lights, it is the clicking that makes them sway on unlit porches while the Victrola plays in the parlor……..Into places their fathers have warned them about and their mothers shudder to think of.
Pg 229: The part that closes her neckline snap while waiting for the trolley; and brushes lint from his blue serge suit when they come out of the movie house into the sunlight.
If I were able I’d say it. Say make me, remake me. You are free to do it and Iam free to let you because look, look. Look where your hands are. Now.
Keywords By Megan R.
pg 167: "Unwarned, they weren't prepared for the way their blood felt when they caught a glimpse of her, or for how trembly their legs got hearing that babygirl laugh."
pg 170: "The city man looked faint, but Honor and Hunter had not only watched the commmon and counted-on birthings farm people see, but had tugged and twisted newborns from all sort of canals."
pg 171: "Sweat covered her face and, breathing hard, she licked beads of it off her upper lip."
pg 173: "Girls can do that. Steer a man away from death or drive him right to it."
pg 175: "In Vienna he had lived first with fear of her, then the joke of her, finally the obsession, followed by rejection of her."
pg 175: "You know the woman is somebodys mother and somebody ought to take care.
pg 178: "A woman who frightened children, made men sharpen knives, for whom brides left food out (might as well--otherwise she stole it."
pg 179: "There are boys who have whores for mothers and don't get over it. There are boys whose mothers stagger through town roads when the juke joint slams its door. Mothers who throw their children away or trade them for folding money."
pg 180: "He isn't thinking of harming her, or, as Hunter cautioned, killing something tender. She is female. And she is not prey."
pg 181: "Not at that insulted skin. Never. Never hurt the young: nest eggs, roe, fledglings, fry..."
167- “Unwarned, they weren’t prepared for the way their blood felt when they caught a glimpse of her, or for how trembly their legs got hearing that baby girl laugh.”
173- “Girls can do that. Steer a man away from death or drive him right to it. Pull you out of sleep and wake you up on the ground under a tree you’ll never locate again because you’re lost.”
178- “A woman who frightened children, made men sharpen knives, for whome brides left food out (might as well--otherwise she stole it). Leaving traces of her sloven unhousebroken self all over the county.”
179- “There are boys who have whores for mothers and don’t get over it. There are boys whose mothers stagger through town roads when the juke joint slams its door. Mothers who throw their children away or trade them for folding money. He would have chosen any one of them over this indecent speechless lurking insanity.”
180- “She is female. And she is not prey.”
190- Dorcas discusses how Acton is changing her into a woman. Unlike Joe who liked her just the way that she was. She is now a typical girl changing herself for a man.
200-202- Felice’s observation of Dorcas and how she really was.
208- “Now I want to be the woman my mother didn’t stay around long enough to see. That one. The one she would have liked and the one I used to like before…”
216- “Dorcas liked that part--that other girls were jealous; that he chose her over them; that she had one.”
216- “No blossoms are on the trees yet but it’s warm enough. They’ll be out soon. That one over there is aching for it. It’s not a man tree; I think it’s a child. Well, it could be a woman, I suppose.”
p.190-4th paragraph, Dorcas’ submissive attitude toward Acton. She changes herself for him.
p.203-“She wasted is on Acton, who took it for granted, and took her for granted and any girl who like him”…common behavior in adolescent boys, they let girls chase after them.
p.205-“If I sit here too long, some man will think I’m looking for a good time”…unusual for an adolescent girl to be out in the city in one spot for a period of time.
p.205-“I want a good job first. Make my own money. Like she did.”…Felice chooses job success before getting married.
p.216-“Dorcas liked that part—that other girls were jealous; that he chose her over them; that she had won. That’s what she said. ‘I won him. I won!’”…competition between the younger generation.
p.227-“Into places their fathers have warned them about and their mothers shudder to think of”…connection between the view of Jazz during this time and the parents’ concern for their children.
p.228-229…Joe and Violet’s faded love renewed in the city.
Notes by Laura Hall
Pg.167 "The pregnant girls marked their babies or didn't, but the grandfathers-unwarned-went soft inthe heads, walked out of the syrup house, left their beds in the shank of night, wet themselves, forgot teh names of their grown children and where they'd put their razor strops."
Pg.169 "His clothes would make a preacher sigh and Hunter knew from the ladylike hands the stranger had never made a fist hard enough to smash a melon."
Pg.173 "Girls can do that. Steer a man away from death or drive him right to it. Pull you out of sleep and wake you up on the ground under a tree you'll never locate again because you're lost."
Pg.179 "There are boys who have whores for mothers and don't get over it. There are boys whose mothers stagger through town roads when the juke joint slams its door. Mothers who throw their children away or trade them for folding money."
Pg.180 "He isn't thinking of harming her, or, as Hunter had cautioned, killing something tender. She is female. And she is not prey. So he never thinks of that."
Pg.182 "Plus I know how to treat a woman. I never have, never would, mistreat one. Never would make a woman live like a dog in a cave. The roosters would. She used to say that too."
Pg.190 "He didn't even care what I looked like. I could be anything, do anything- and it pleased him. Something about that made me mad. I don't know."
Pg.201 "Guys looked at her, whistled and called out fresh stuff when we walked down the street. In school all sorts of boys wanted to talk to her. But then they stopped;nothing came of it."
Pg.212 "I wished i hadn't taken my sweater off. My dress stretches across the top no matter what I do. He was looking at my face, not my body, so I don't know why I was nervous alone in the room with him."
Pg.216 "Dorcas liked that part- that other girls were jealous; that he chose her over them; that she had won."
Wiki Entry 8: Clockers (entire film) (due February 21)
Keywords by Megan R.
5:47pm- Strike and the other young men acting like boys, talking about sex and violence.
5:49- Strike is being responsible for his gang, a working boy, trying to support himself by taking risks.
5:50- Man to man, staring down each other, sizing each other up and acting male and tough.
5:55- Gang boss like a father, watching over strike, taking care of him and his stomach ulcer, gives him medicine.
6:00- Strike is antagonized and made to seem weak since he has stomach ulcers, made fun of and treated like a weak person, or even being like a girl.
6:13- Brothers bonding, family and male status in family important.
6:20- Victor is responsible and truthful, a strong man, that turns himself in for murder.
6:25- Women in comercial dressed in bikins and advertising beer and themselves
7:40- Vitor and Strikes Mother comes in and tells the officers the truth and helps her son by standing up for him, a womans compassion and love.
12:01: Strike and his friends all sitting around the courtyard talking about “slapping those bitches up”.
12:06: “Pull up your pants bitch”, what one of the officers says to Strike.
12:12 Strike talks about a 16 year old looking for a job and being taken advantage of (Sherice).
12:14 Daryl Adams before he is shot is making fun of Strike using the peptobismol and referring to is as pussybismol and no mylanta for this girl.
12:22 Many of the males talk about making it big and buying their mothers a house or extravagant gifts.
12:28 Shorty’s mom yells at Strike to stay away from Shorty and warns him she will tell Andre. Strike took Shorty to the barber shop to get a buzz cut without permission. Shorty’s mom was screaming at Strike and getting in his face.
12:34 Victor talking about providing for his wife and two kids and working two jobs to do it.
12:39 Strike tells Shorty to go upstairs before his mom flips him shit.
12:40 At the coolbreeze Rocco is questioning the bartender and in the background on the TV there are African American women dancing around in bathing suits.
12:59 Everytime women are shown on the street, they are taking care of children and seem to be steering clear of Strike and his friends.
1:07 Dirty cop harassing the Caucasian boys in the Mercedes in the drive thru threatening them that the inmates in jail will be “calling them Mary all night long”.
1:09 Female African American on crack staggering by
1:11 2 African American girls buying crack.
1:15 Shorty’s mom gets in a physical altercation with Strike for not respecting her wishes and staying away from her son Shorty. Strike’s friends are making kissing noises in the background. Strike does not hit Shorty’s mom even though it looks like he wants to and is being hit by her.
1:17 Rocca says to Strike that he treats him like a man and with respect.
1:25 Rodney tells Strike that the car is his wife’s new car so “you know I don’t give a fuck”.
1:44 Rocco convinces Shorty to confess to shooting Errol in self defense to protect his mom to avoid a long jail sentence.
This movie didn’t deal with the gender issue the way our other movies/books have. The main issue in this movie was the dealing of young black men in the projects of New York trying to survive and hopefully become strong adult men. There were very few images of women in this movie. There was a single mother of a 12 year old boy, a wife of a man arrested for murder, and his mother who lived with his family. There are 3 scenes that deal directly with gender issues. They are:
Scene 2- Darryl Adams, a known “clocker”, is referred to as “a dope dealin’ woman beater”.
Scene 5- The single mother of 12 year old Tyrone/Shorty is pissed that some man in the projects took over role as Tyrone’s daddy and gave him a haircut.
Scene 11- Keitel’s character asks the main character Strike, who is being harassed by the single mom, if he is beating up on her. Keitel asks: “Now you beating up on defenseless women?” Strike answers: “NO man! She attacked me!”
5min-Males involved in drug dealing
10min-Rodney wants Strike to kill Daryl because he’s stealing from Rodney
17min-Strike tells Victor that Daryl beat up a girl because she wouldn’t perform oral sex for a job…objectifying women.
33min-Video game, “Gangsta”, teaches children about gangs and killing
36min-Tyrone’s mother stands up to the drug dealers on the benches
38min-Tyrone starts acting like Strike (drinking Moo and dressing like him)
41min-Victor works 2 jobs to provide for his family and move them out of the projects
46min-Commercial in bar shows women in scandalous clothing selling a product
51min-Police think Victor is taking the blame for his brother for the shooting
1:06min-Strike teaches Tyrone about hustling and warns him that if he gets into it, he’ll kill him
1:13min-Homocide detective and other drug dealers show no compassion for Strike’s ulcer problem. The drug dealers kick him and accuse him of smoking crack. The detective leaves him laying on the ground as he’s throwing up blood.
1:17min-Pregnant woman buys cocaine & the dealer tells her it’s the last time he’s going to sell it to her because she has to take care of her baby.
1:22min-Rodney forces his gun into Strike’s mouth to show power and who’s in charge.
1:41min-Mothers are respected; Strike kisses his mother before leaving, Tyrone is very obedient to what his mother tells him, and Strike sees his mother as he’s being beaten.
1:49min-Strike and Victor’s mother confesses the truth about the shooting, she defends Victor and disrespects Strike by throwing his drug dealing money in his face.
Wiki Entry 9: Manhattan (entire film) (due February 28)
3:30 Narrator: “To him, New York meant beautiful women and street smart guys who seemed to know all the angles
3:30 Opening narration refers to him as having the coiled sexual power of a jungle cat behind the black rimmed glasses.
Elaine’s :I look incredibly handsome with a cigarette (Issac) Yale says that Tracy is gorgeous, Issac comments that she is seventeen and he could beat up her father. Tracy says they should go as she has an exam tomorrow and Issac says the kid (Tracy) has to get up, he is dating a girl who has homework. Issac and Yale discussing Yale’s affair. Yale describes her as elusive, highstrung and beautiful. Yale says in all the years he and Emily have been married he has only had one or two “things”.
Yale and Emily get home and she brings up having kids and getting a place in Conneticut.
Issac and Jill (lesbian ex wife) walking down the street discussing the tell all book she is writing and Issac questions the content pertaining to sex and refers to it as “hot stuff”. He then inquires about their son Willie and asks if he is playing baseball or wearing dresses.
Issac and Tracy are at home and they are talking about past relationships and how she had 3 affairs before Issac with immature boys and she tells him she thinks she is in love with him. Issac responds by saying that they are having a great time but she is a kid and is going to meet a lot of wonderful men in her life but makes a humerous remark that he doesn’t blame her for being taken in by his astonishing sexual technique and his erotic charm. He says she has her whole life ahead of her. He makes a comment about as long as the cops don’t bust in they will break a couple of records. He doesn’t want her to sleep over when she protests.
(Tracy) Veronica Lake is the pin up with the red hair? (Issac) No, that’s Rita Hayworth
At the art gallery Issac says that Tracy has a whiny voice.
While Issac and Tracy, Yale and Mary are walking down the street Mary says “you see, don’t you guys see, it is the dignifying of one’s own sexual hang-ups…….
Issac says it was a sincere sensation to meet Mary as he and Tracy are leaving Yale and Mary.
Issac refers to Mary as a creep, nervous, overbearing and cerebral when describing her to Tracy. He refers to Mary as a radcliffe tootsie rating Fitzgerald and Maller etc. He says if she would have said one more word about Bergman, he would have knocked her other contact lens out.
Issac says that Yale has a wonderful wife but prefers to diddle this little yoyo and that Yale was always a sucker for those kind of women that want to have discussions exestensial reality and sit around on the floor with wine and cheese. He says he is old fashiones and doesn’t believe in extra marital affairs. Tracy says that maybe people weren’t meant to be with just one person, that times maybe are changing.
Issac quits his job and the show he was producing or writing had a “catatonic” woman who was suppose to be on drugs and a guy was simulating breaking her neck.
Issac is talking to Yale about having child support and 2 alimonies to pay and is unemployed and says he won’t be able to pick up the check at dinner and will have to give his parents less money. Yale asks him about Tracy and Issac says he has to get out of that situation, she is a young girl, it is ridiculous.
At the dinner engagement/party there is a feminist guest speaker. Issac runs in to Mary and a friend at the gathering and they are talking about a Nazi demonstration in New York and the friend says excuse me, we were talking about orgasms. The friend is filming a movie and the premise is about a man who “screws so great that the woman has an orgasm and dies”.
Mary is explaining why she got divorced from Jeremiah to Issac and she says she was tired of submerging her identity to a very brilliant and dominating man. She asks Issac why he and his wife divorced and he informs her that his wife left him for another woman and Mary goes on to say how humiliating and sexually demoralizing that must have been and that that would be enough to turn anyone off to women. (Mary is starting to act a little flirty) and says that must explain why he is with the little girl (Tracy).
Issac asks Mary sarcastically if she gets many dates. Mary says that the brightest men drop dead in front of a beautiful face. Mary asks if he has any kids and he says yes, he is being raised by 2 women. Mary responds by saying “this could work”, “you don’t need a male, 2 mothers are fine. Issac says he has heard very few survive one mother.
Mary says she has to get her dog which she refers to as a penis substitute and is a daushaund and Issac remarks that in that case he would have thought it would be a great dane.
Mary says she was sleeping with her teacher (future husband Jeremiah) and he had the nerve to give her an F.
Issac pays for Mary’s take out at her protest.
His book as is about decaying values.
His first book was about his mother titled the castrating Zionist
Issac refers to the city as a knockout.
Issac calls Yale and tells him he ran into Mary at the museum and he says that she is reacting to the femanist.
Mary is at Bloomingdale’s with Yale and says their relationship is ridiculous because he his married. She says she does not want to break up a marriage.
He suggests they go somewhere and make love. She remarks, “can’t you just hold me, why does your love always have to express itself sexually”.
Ike goes to pick up his son Willie at Jill and Connie’s. Jill looks very seductive. Ike asks how Willie has been and Jill comments that he is really into drawing. Ike says that neither one of them has that talent so where did it come from and Connie says “ I draw”. Ike says that there is no way that she could be the actual father.
He asks Jill how he could prefer Connie to him and Jill says that he knew her history before they were married. Issac says that she was just so beautiful.
Issac leaves with Willie and dribbling the basketball and takes him window shopping for sailboats and takes him to the Russian tea room where there are a lot of beautiful women. He says that if he were older he could do really well here and he thought the brunette liked him.
Maty calls Issac and asks him what he is doing and he says looking at the paper and the lingerie ads, he can never get past them. That they are erotic.
After getting caught in the rainstorm Mary asks Issac how she looks.
Mary says that her ex husband had affairs and that she never said anything because she thought she was deficient in someway, bad in bed, physically not attractive or not bright enough. She says that he really opened her up sexually, taught her everything and that women found him devastating.
Mary says to Issac that he has a tendency to get a little hostile but she finds that attractive. He says he is glad she does.
He says to Mary that she is terrific and insecure.
Issac turns down Mary’s suggestion that she call him next week and makes the excuse about working on the book when in fact he does not want to risk compromising his friendship with Yale even though he wants her to.
Emily asks who Yale called after dinner and Yale lies. He really called Mary. He says she was acting strange at dinner and Emily says she was just thinking about kids again.
Ike is meeting Tracy at Elaine’s and tells Tracy she looks adorable. She says she has an opportunity to go to London and study but she doesn’t want to go with out him. Mary says he won’t take her seriously because she is 17. He says when she is 36 he will be 63 and she will be at the height of her sexual prowess and so will he because he is a late starter. He asks her what she wants to do tonight, anything she wants and they go on a carriage ride something he says is corny and he did when he was a kid and on his prom night. They kiss and embrace.
Mary and Yale are fighting about not spending time together. Mary says she is beautiful and deserves better and doesn’t know how she got into this situation and maybe they met at the wrong time. She says she is not a ho or a homewrecker.
Mary says her parents have been married for 43 years and nobody cheats at all.
Yale tries to calm Mary down and Mary pulls away.
Issac and Tracy are in bed and Issac is disturbed by the upstairs neighbors and Tracy suggests that they fool around to take his mind off of it. Issac says how many times can you make love and evening. Mary says a lot. She asks him a way that he wants to do it that he has never done before and Issac says “what kind of talk is that from someone your age”.
Tracy says she could help Issac fix up the place if he would give her a chance. He says he does not want her staying there and that tonight was a special occasion.
Tracy asks Issac what is going to happen to them. She accuses him of ignoring her.
Yale meets with Mary to break things off and she says she could tell on the phone by his authorative tone. She will not look in in the eye. He says he does not want to break up his marriage and then find out that they are no good together. Yale asks Mary if she will be ok and she says of course, “what do you think I am going to do, hang myself? I am young and beautiful, smart and attractive. She says she could go to bed with the entire faculty of MIT if she wanted to, she is wasting herself on a married man.
Issac says to Mary at his apartment, you pick a married man and when things don’t work out it confirms your worst feelings about men and marriage and how nothing works out.
Mary says “ don’t defend him, you all stick of for each other”
Yale and Issac are playing raquetball and yale says he has his life together finally and that he had to cut things off, he is not the type for affairs. He says Mary deserves more than a fling with a married guy.
Yale says Mary needs something in her life and that Issac should call her.
Issac is in Mary’s apartment and comments about how sexy she looked in the rain that day at the planetarium and how he wanted to throw her down on the lunar surface and commit interstellar perversion with her.
Mary says at the art gallery that her problem is that she is both attracted and repeled by the mail organ so it doesn’t make for very good relations with men.
Issac meets Tracy outside of her school and they go to the soda shop and he breaks things off accusing he of being to hung up on him and that he is starting to sound like her. He says she is a kid and does not know what love means. She says they have great sex. He says that this was supposed to be a temporary fling. He tells her not to look at him with those big eyes. Tracy cries and Issac tries to console her.
Mary and Issac are in bed together in the country and he says she is dynamite but thought she might be faking it at times. She says her ex husband was an oversexed brilliant animal but she could see having kids with Issac. She says she hopes it all works out and he says don’t worry, I will take care of everything. In the next scene they are slow dancing and you just see their silhouettes.
Mary introduces Issac as her fiend when they run into Jeremiah at a clothing store. She complements him on how good he looks. Issac says he was not what he expected, Mary had described him as quite the ladies man.
Yale reads a quote out of Jill’s book “making love to this deeper more masterful female made me realize what a an empty experience and what a bizarre charade making love with my husband was.
Issac goes to see Jill about the book and she says that she said some nice things about him as well like that he cries when he watches gone with the wind.
Connie tells Jill not to forget that Willie is at ballet class
Issac comes home and Mary tells him that she thinks she is still in love with Yale and that she started seeing him again. Issac says he knows its egotistical but he can’t believe she prefers Yale to him.
Issac says that “you always think you are going to be the one that will make them act different”.
Issac goes directly to the school where Yale teaches and confronts him. They have a pissing match over who met Mary first and who loved her first etc.
Issac doing father son stuff with Willie, carving pumpkins, playing football. Issacs sweatshirt said divorced fathers and sons all stars.
Issac and Emily having coffee and Emily says she knows that Yale was having affairs. Issac says out of all the women he has known Tracy was the one. He said he blew it with her and was so sweet and he kept her at a distance. He said he did not return her call because he did not want to lead her on.
Issac decides to see Tracy. He watches her combing her hair through the glass door. Issac says he ran 2 hours to get to her. He tells he made a big mistake and does not want her to go to London after he sold her so hard on it. She says her parents are there looking for a place for her. She says “I turned 18 the other day, I am legal but I am still a kid”. She says what is 6 months if we still love each other. Issac says she will be hanging out with actors and directors and having lunch developing relationships. He says he doesn’t want the things he liked about her to change. Tracy replies everyone gets corrupted. She says he has to have a little faith in her.
Keywords By Megan R.
5:5Opm- Issace begins by saying that "New York meant beautiful women..." and etc. Showing the high sexual tension that already exists within the film.
5:55pm- Issace says that he doesn't smoke but that he looks sexy holding a cigarette.
5:58pm- Yale discusses how scared he is of his afair and that he is not commited to his wife, feels bad, but still continues to see other women.
6:00pm- "You shouldn't ask me for advice about women."??
6:02- Issace is excited about his exwife exposing sexual things about him to the public.
6:04- "You have a whiney voice." Tracy to Issac, because he is always complaining.
6:05- Mary is blunt to Issac about what she thinks of the art on the bottom floor.
6:10- Issac takes a risk and quits his job, then he gets nervous and goes and worries to Yale about it.
6:15- Doctor said the woman had the wrong kind of orgasm...
6:17- Mary refers to her dog as a substitue for a penis.
6:25- Issac keeps hasseling his exwife about the book she is writing,
Issac tries to show his son how to pick up women.
6:27- Issac can't ever get past the lingerie ads in magazines because he thinks they are erotic.
6:31- Issac finds Mary to be hostile and insecure, he seems scared because she is so similar to how he is.
Scene 1- A man associates, through monolog narration, himself to New York City.
Scene 2- Discussion about Issack, who’s 42, dating Tracy, who’s 17.
Scene 3- Issacks friend, Yale, admits to having an affair to Issack.
- Issacks ex-wife acts as pissed off ex-wife by writing a tell-all book on their marriage and divorce.
Scene 4- Issack mocks Mary as being an overly cerebral woman.
Scene 6- Discussion of a play about a man who kills women by making them orgasm.
Scene 7- Issacks ex-wife left him for another woman.
- Mary mocks Issack for dating Tracy, the 17 year old.
- Discussion between Mary and Issack: ”You don’t need a male, two mothers are absolutely fine.”---”Really, because I always feel very few people survive one mother.”---”I wrote a book about my mother called ‘The Castrating Zionist’.”
Scene 12- Mary is upset that Yale is canceling plans with her to spend time with his wife’s family.
Scene 19- Issack confronts ex-wife on book, she calls him a narcissistic woman hater.
Scene 21- Emily, Yale’s wife, states to Issack that marriage requires compromise…even if that means accepting extra-marital affairs.
Scene 23- Tracy tells Issack: “Guess what? I turned 18 just the other day. I’m legal but I’m still a kid.”
5:55-Isaac is dating a 17 year old, he’s 42. Divorced.
5:57-Yale is married, but meets another woman
6:00-Isaac has a son whom he spends little time with
6:01-Tracy thinks she’s in love with Isaac, but he insists she doesn’t devote her whole self to one man
6:04-When Mary meets Isaac she challenges his opinions. She’s very opinionated and intelligent
6:07-Isaac believes “people should mate for life”
6:12-When asked about the job Isaac quit, he quickly changes the subject to something else
6:13-People seem to be very open about talking about sexuality, Mary is not
6:14-Mary is divorced. She describes her marriage as “submerging my identity to a dominating man”
6:14-Isaac explains how his ex-wife left him for another woman
6:15-“Being pretty is subjective”-Mary
6:17-Mary married her college professor
6:19-Mary is active in the feminist movement
6:30-Yale’s wife wants kids, he doesn’t.
6:35-Mary is from Philadelphia, from a religious family who never cheats on their significant other
6:47-Isaac is very passive about his personal past
7:04-Isaac’s son is taking ballet
7:10-Continous relationship drama
7:11-Mary breaking up with Isaac causes him to get his life back in order. He spends more time with his son and writes his book.
7:21-“Don’t be so mature”-Isaac to Tracy
Notations by Laura Hall
Isaac says,"She's gorgeous, she's seventeen, I'm older than her father. I can beat up her father, I think this is the first time I have ever dated someone who's father i could beat up."
Isaac says,"She's beautiful,nervous and high strung."
Yale says,"The whole time we were married I had one or two minor things with another woman."
Isaac asks his ex-wife,"Does he play baseball, does he wear dresses?"
Isaac says,"I have got to get out of that, she's a young girl, it's ridiculous!"
Isaac says to Mary,"My ex-wife left me for another woman." Mary replies,"That probably accounts for the young girl."
Mary says,"I feel like one of those women. I don't want to break up a marriage."
Isaac says to his son,"There are very beautiful women here. I think we could have picked them up if you were a little bit quicker."
Mary says,"I am beautiful and smart and I deserve better." And then again she says,"I'm a young, beautiful, highly intelligent woman, I shouldn't be wasting myself on a married man." (this is a recurring theme for her)
Mary says,"I'm both attracted and repelled by the male organ."
Isaac says to Tracy that there is someone else,"Someone older, well...not as old as I am."
Isaac takes his son to "Divorced father and son football"
Emily says to Isaac,"I blame you, if you would have never introduced Mary and Yale none of this may have ever happened." And Isaac doesn't tell her the truth, he is silent in response.
Tracy says to Isaac, "You really hurt me."
Wiki Entry 10: Cosmopolis p.1-61 (due March 4)
pg 6: He imagined the whores were all fled from the lamplit corners by now, duck butts shaking, other kinds of archaic business just beginning to stir……………..
pg 7: A suit subdued the camber of his overdeveloped chest. He liked to work out at night………. Pg 10: Aman in women’s clothing walked seven elegant dogs.
Pg 11: Torval, bald and no-necked, a man who seemed removable for maintainance.
Shiner was waiting inside the car, his chief of technology, small and boy-faced.
Pg 16: She was in her mid twenties, with an etched delicacy of featire and large and artless eyes…………….
Pg 17: He lifted her hand and held it to his face, smelling and licking.
Pg 18: “You have your mother’s breasts.”….”Great stand up tits”.
Pg 19: She peered at him over bridged hands, her smile in hiding.
Pg 20: He found that Torval’s burly presence was a provacation.
…….with the earnest alertness that thickset men bring to a task.
Pg 21: Your mother blamed the smile on your father. He blamed her. There’s something deathly about it.
Pg 25: She put a hand to his chest, self dramatically, to determine he was here and real. Then they began to stumble and clutch, working towards the bedroom…..They did not get serious about undressing until they were finished making love.
Pg 26: “Like one of the great arranged marriages of old empire Europe.”
“Except I’m a world citizen with a New York set of balls.”
Hoisting his genitals in his hand.
“So rich and crisp. Does she let you touch her personal parts?”
“You look gorgeous today.”
Pg 27: “ ……..Is she good in bed?”
He placed a hand on her buttock. They lay a while in silence. She was a scorched blonde named Didi Fancher.
Pg 28: She reached back and slapped his hand of her ass.
“Here lies Didi. Trapped in all the old puritanisms.
He rolled belly down and they lay close, hips and shoulders touching. He licked along the rim of her ear and put his face in her hair, rooting softly.
Pg 30……she was in a post sensual time……..
Pg 31: Dressed or undressed. Another talent, I suppose.
He watched her. He didn’t think he wanted to be surprised, even by a woman, this woman, who’d taught him how to look……..
Pg 32: She was whispering, still, and turned away from him now.
“If this makes me sexier, then whre are you going?”
pg 33: She was dragged down with them, a willowy woman whose slit skirt ran up her thigh and became a pivotal point of observation.
Pg 40: “You don’t know this. You can’t know what it’s like. Iam a struggling single mother.”
He looked at her, pink and dripping.
Pg 41: ………women in brisk skirts, half running, sandaled women wearing headsets, women in floppy shorts…….
Pg 44: He was a white-haired, tall and stalwart…….
Pg 47: Her clavicle showed knobby above the droop of her tank top. He wanted to lick the sweat off the inside of her wrist……….
Pg 48: She had the bottle in her crotch……of heartbeat and secretion, some vast sexus of arousal drawing him toward her………
“It’s sexual tension.”
Pg 49: “Do you know what I see when I look at you?.....You want to follow your body into idleness and fleshiness…….”.What do I see? Something lazy, sexy and insatiable.”
“I’m more excited than I’ve been since the first burning nights of adolesent frenzy……….
Pg 50: “ …….A woman who was born to sit strapped in a chair while a man tells her how much she excites him.”
Pg 51:….”Is his manhood a sham?”
She knows what he means, that they don’t even have to touch…………
He sees her in her wallow and feels his pelvic muscles begin to quiver.
She is his sweetheart and lover and slut undying.
Pg: 54: “I am advising you as a woman who would still be married to her husbands if they had looked at her the way you have looked at me here today.”
Pg 55: Mirrors and images. Or sex and love. These are two separate systems that we miserably try to link.
I struggled to love and provide. How many of you know the true and bitter force of that simple word provide?
Pg 59:…….even somebody’s mother’s maiden name in brilliant and telling thrust……
I never felt a distinction over time between child and man, boy and man.
Keywords By Megan R.
pg.7: "A suit subdued the camber of his overdeveloped chest."
pg.10: "A man in women's clothing walked seven elegant dogs."
pg.11: "Torval, bald and no necked, a man whose head seemed removable for maintenance."
pg.16: "She was in her mid-twenties, with an etched delicacy of feature and large artless eyes. Her beauty had an element of remoteness."
pg.20: "His bearing was one of blunt persuasion, with earnest alertness that thickset men bring a task. These wer e hostile incitements."
pg.25: "She put a hand to his chest, self-dramatically, to determine he was here and real. They began to stumble and clutch, working toward the bedroom."
pg.30: "He watched her getting dressed. She dressed in a summary manner, appearing to think ahead to some business that needed completing, whatever he interrupted on his arrival."
pg.31: "He didn't think he wanted to be surprised by a woman, this woman, who'd taught him how to look, how to feel enchantment damp on his face, the melt of pleasure inside a brushstroke or band of color."
pg.47: "He wanted to lick the sweat off the inside of her wrist. She was wrists and shinbones and unbalmed lips."
pg.49: "I see a woman who wants to live shamelessly in her body. Tell me this is not the truth. You want to follow your body into idleness and fleshiness."
pg.51: "Her feet flew out from under her. She uttered a thing, a sound, herself, her soul in rapid rising inflection."
pg.58: "I wanted its intimacy and touch, his touch, the stain of his personal dirt. I wanted to rub the bills over my face to remind me why i shot him."
SARAH KING 15- “It took him a moment to understand that he knew the woman in the rear seat of the taxi that lay adjacent. She was his wife of twenty-two days”
16- “She was in her mid-twenties, with an etched delicacy of feature and large and artless eyes. Her beauty had an element of remoteness. This was intriguing but maybe not. Her head rode slightly forward on a slender length of neck. She had an unexpected laugh, a little weary and experienced, and he liked the way she put a finger to her lips wen she wanted to be thoughtful. Her poetry was shit.”
18- “’I like your mother. You have your mother’s breasts.’” “’Her breasts.’” “’Great stand-up tits,’ he said.”
27- “She was a scorched blonde named Didi Fancher.”
30- “He watcher her getting dressed. She dressed in a summary manner, appearing to think ahead to some business that needed completing, whatever he’d interrupted on his arrival. She was in post-sensual time, fitting an arm to a creamy sleeve, and looked drabber and sadder now. He wanted a reason to despise her.”
41- “women in brisk skirts, half running, sandaled women wearing headsets, women in floppy shorts, tourists, others high and slick with fingernails from vampire movies, long, fanged and frescoed”
47- “Eric looked directly into Jane’s face. He liked doing this, which surprised him. In the office she was an edgy presence, skeptical, adversarial, aloof, with a gift for sustained complaint. Here, she was a single running mother in a foldout seat, knock-kneed and touchingly, somehow, gaunt.”
51- “’Is his manhood a sham? Does he love himself or hate himself? I don’t think he knows. Or it changes minute to minute. Or the question is so implicit in everything he does that he can’t get outside it to answer.’”
Notations by Laura Hall
Pg.6 "When he died he would not end. The world would end."
Pg.7 "He wore a suite and tie. A suite subdued teh camber of his overdeveloped chest. He liked to work out at night, pulling weighted metal sleds, doing curls and bench presses in stoic repetitions that ate away the day's tumults and compulsions."
Pg.10 "He wanted it because it was oversized but aggressively and contemptuously so, metastasizingly so, a tremendous mutant thing that stood astride every argument against it."
Pg.15 "She was his wife of twenty-two days, Elise Shifrin, a poet who had right of blood to the fabulous Shifrin banking fortune of Europe and the world."
Pg.16 "She was in her mid twenties, with an etched delicacy of feature and large and artless eyes."
Pg.26 "Except I'm a world citizen with a New York pair of balls." Hoisting his genitals in his hand.
Pg.38 "He knew what she would say to him, first line, word for word and he looked forward to hearing it."
Pg.39 "That I'm a powerful person who chooses not to demarcate his territory with singular driblets of piss is what? Is something I need to apologize for?"
Pg.45-46 "But the man did not wear glasses although he seemed to be someone who should, based on facial typology and general demeanor, a man who'd worn glasses since early boyhood, looking overprotected and marginalized, persecuted by the other kids. He was a man you'd swear wore glasses."
Pg.47 "From his stooped position, Eric looked directly into Jane's face. He liked doing this, which suprised him. In the office she was a edgy presence, skeptical, adversarial, aloof, with a gift for sustained complaint. Here, she was a single running mother in a fold out seat, knock kneed and touchingly, somehow, gaunt."
Pg.50 "A woman who was born to sit strapped in a chair while a man tells her how much she excites him."
Pg.51 "Does he regret surrendering his dignity and pride? Or is there a secret wish for self-abasement?" he smiled at Jane. is his manhood a sham? Does he love himself or hate himself? I don't think he knows?"
p.10-“A man in woman’s clothing walked seven elegant dogs.”
p.17-“You never told me you were blue-eyed.”…lack of any kind of contact between husband and wife?
p.17-“and Elise of course, Swiss or something, sitting across the table”…he doesn’t know what his wife’s nationality is.
p.18-“You and I. We’re here. So might as well.”…and the 6 lines that follow show the disconnect between Eric and his wife, they’re too busy to be a married couple.
p.22-“I know I can’t answer these questions without losing your respect.”…shows the intimidation that Eric has over his assistants.
p.26-Eric has an affair with Didi Fancher
p.32-“Their eyes did not meet. They went to the elevator and rode to the lobby in silence.”…perhaps shows that Eric is somewhat ashamed over his actions of having an affair.
p.40-“I am a single struggling mother.”…displays difficulty for single mothers in the city.
Wiki Entry 11: Cosmopolis p.63-155 (due March 6)
pg 67: A woman moved past, behind him, and he turned to look, too late, not sure how he knew it was a woman…..He also knew he had to follow.
He realized his bodyguard was smiling at him, a black woman with a striking face, letting her eyes range playfully toward the door to her right.
Pg 68……and put his hands on her ankles, admiring her milky eyes above the headband of the book.
“Where is your necktie”? she said.
He ran his hands up her calves to the rills behind the knees.
Pg 69: He cited aloud certain items he thought she might like to eat.
“Sometimes only noise,” she said, leaning into him, whispering the words cheerfully.
Pg 70: “That’s nice. Oh I like that,” she said and kissed the side of his head, a bit maternally.
Pg 71: They were talking, they were pressed together nestling.
It’s a thing a man does.
He looked at her closely, expecting to admire the arched nostrils and the fine slight veer along the ridge of the nose.
Pg 72-73: He wanted to bite her lower lip, seize it between his teeth and bite down hard enough to draw an erotic drop of blood.
“Someday you’ll be a grown-up,” he said, “and then your mother will have no one to talk to.”
Pg 77: And he hated and mocked him for his gynecoid upper body with its swag of dangling mammaries under the sheer white shirt.
She usually wore a beret but was bareheaded today, Vija Kinski, a small woman in a button-down business shirt, an old embroidered vest and a long pleated skirt of a thousand launderings……..
Pg 81: The man was shrewd and tough, cruel in the best sense.
……made them feel bound to an unspoken code, a brotherhood of beauty and loss.
Pg 82: Women in his soup.
Pg 83: These were figures beyond gender and procreation, enchanted women in men’s shorts, beyond commerce, even, men immortal in their muscle tone, in the clustered bulge at the crotchline.
Pg 84: She wore tiny tassled loafers and white ankle socks.
Pg 85: Yes, he admired her gift for cogent sppech, shapely and persuasive, with rubbed finish……….but there was something dirty in her laugh.
Pg 88: The woman looked Egyptian in profile, Middle Kingdom, leaning toward her left breast to speak into the wearable phone.
Pg 90: “The market culture is total. It brreds these men and women……..”
Pg 93: Her smile was private, as always, and a minor muscle twitched at the corner of her mouth.
Pg 95: “She worked her mole. She fingered the mole on her cheek, twisting it as she thought. He sat and waited.
Pg 97: ……men with automatic weapons that were skeleton guns, all framework and no body.
Pg 99:…….broad men in haunchy spirits…….
Pg 103: “About men and immortality”.
Pg 104-105: Where was her life? What did she do when she went home? Who was there besides the cat?......It would be a breach of trust, he thought, to ask if she had a cat, much less a husband, a lover……….
Kinski naked on his chest.
“Men think about immortality. Never mind what women think. We’re too small and real to matter here”, she said. “Great men historically expect to live forever even as they ………..
pg 106: Yes, the effect on him was sexual, cunnilingual in particular………..
pg 111: She had coral brown skin and well-defined cheekbones. There was a beeswax sheen to her lips. She liked to be looked at and made the act of undressing seem proudly public………..”You work out,” she said. “Six percent body fat.”
Pg 112: …….just looking at her face and body, as an exercise in Tao, or fasting with the mind.
“Men get possessive. What. You don’t know this?”
pg 113: He wanted her to move slightly to the left so that her hip would catch the glow of the table lamp nearby.
She dipped her finger in the drink, then forgot to lick it.
“Move a little left.” “Move a little left.” :There. Nice. Perfect.”
Pg 117: “I took it up when I was fifteen. It’s one of those thngs a girl takes up. It tells her she’s more than a skinny body no one looks at. There’s a certain drama in her life.”
Pg 118:…………and made him feel boyishly inventive and rebellious.
Pg 119: “We don’t need a hotel . We’ll do it in the ladie’s room. We’ll go into the alley out back and rattle garbage cans……….To notice your mood, your clothes……..”
“…………..Am I being to wifey?”
pg 120: She began to cry. He’d never seen her cry and felt a little helpless. He put out a hand…………
pg 122:……..in close embrace, her head resting on his shoulder.
…….even placid fatherhood,……….
Pg 126: All the boys had ovoid heads, the girls were a cult of starvelings.
…..that resembled a female voice but wasn’t. It spoke and moaned.
Pg 130: An enormous man approached through the gathering crowd, broad, meaty, solemn, wearing pale linen slacks and a black leather shirt, sleeveless, with platinum accessories here and there.
Pg 131: Kozmo batted himself in the chest, reverently.
Pg 132:…….after he fails to pay feudal tribute in the form of respect or money or women to some skittish individual.
Pg 135: A line of elderly Catholic nuns in full habit………
Pg 137:…….women shiny in tights, unaffordable, and then the moment of disclosure.
Pg 138:…….another blessing of the flesh, women veiled and blue jeaned, clutching the bed posts, painted women and plain.
Pg 142: Carefully he kicked him in the nuts, watching him spaz and crumple in Torval’s grip.
Pg 144: He was brass-balled again.
Keywords by Megan R.
Pg.67- "A woman moved past, behind him, and he turned to look, too late, not sure how he knew it was a woman…..He also knew he had to follow."
Pg.71- "They were talking, they were pressed together nestling."
Pg.72-73- "He wanted to bite her lower lip, seize it between his teeth and bite down hard enough to draw an erotic drop of blood."
Pg.81- "The man was shrewd and tough, cruel in the best sense.
Pg.95- "She worked her mole. She fingered the mole on her cheek, twisting it as she thought. He sat and waited."
Pg.111- "She had coral brown skin and well-defined cheekbones. There was a beeswax sheen to her lips. She liked to be looked at and made the act of undressing seem proudly public."
Pg.113- "He wanted her to move slightly to the left so that her hip would catch the glow of the table lamp nearby. She dipped her finger in the drink, then forgot to lick it."
Pg.117- "I took it up when I was fifteen. It’s one of those thngs a girl takes up. It tells her she’s more than a skinny body no one looks at. There’s a certain drama in her life."
Pg.120- "She began to cry. He’d never seen her cry and felt a little helpless."
Pg.126- "All the boys had ovoid heads, the girls were a cult of starvelings."
Pg.143-144- "His body whispered to him. It hummed with the action, the charge at the photographers, the punches he'd thrown,the bloodsurge, the heartbeat, the great strewn beauty of garbage cans toppling."
p.66-“Eye contact was a delicate matter…people did not touch each other.”…people believe in their personal space and to intrude on that space is uncommon.
p.68-“We’ve been married only weeks. Barely weeks.”…Elise doesn’t feel comfortable being intimate with Eric even though they’re married.
p.76-“He found beauty and precision here, hidden rhythms in the fluctuations of a given currency.”…Eric’s deeper connection with his job
p.76-“His gaze was empty, without direction or content. There was an air of eternal flybuzz boredom.”…description of the president, he seems emotionless.
p.82-“Your mind thrives on ill will toward others. So does your body, I think.”…Eric finds pleasure in other people’s misery
p.83-“These were figures beyond gender and procreation, enchanted women in men’s shorts, beyond commerce, even, men immortal in their muscle tone, in the clustered bulge at the crotchline.”…media’s portrayal of men and women
p.90-“It breeds these men and women. They are necessary to the system they despise…This is why they exist, to invigorate and perpetuate the system.”
p.98-“No one wanted a deranged man. It dishonored their action, their risk, all the work they’d done together.”…society’s view of those who don’t act accordingly
p.103-“About men and immortality.”
p.105-“The question would be a form of assault. She would turn away, angry and humiliated…Giver her a history and she’d disappear.”…the professional relationship between Eric and his theorist.
p.105-“Never mind what women think. We’re too small and real to matter here.”…women in the city
p.120-“She began to cry. He’d never seen her cry and felt a little helpless.”…he has a heart.
65- “He saw a woman seated on the sidewalk begging, a baby in her arms. She spoke a language he didn’t recognize. He knew some languages but not this one. She seemed rooted to that plot of concrete. Maybe her baby had been born there, under the No Parking sign.”
66-68- In search of a mysterious woman in a bookstore that turns out to be his wife Elise.
68- Eric’s wife accuses him of smelling like sex.
71- “They were talking, they were pressed together nestling. He told himself this was his wife.”
71-72- “He looked at her closely, expecting to admire the arched nostrils and the fine slight veer along the ridge of the nose. But he found himself thinking that maybe she wasn’t beautiful after all. It was a stab of awareness. Maybe she was middling, desperately unexceptional. She was better-looking back in the bookstore when he’d thought she was someone else.”
72- They needed the final terms in the series. She was rich, he was rich; she was heir-apparent, he was self-made; she was cultured, he was ruthless; she was brittle, he was strong; she was gifted, he was brilliant; she was beautiful. This was the core of their understanding, the thing they needed to believe before they could be a couple.”
78- He faced her from the jump seat, wondering why he didn’t know how old she was. Her hair was smoky gray and looked lightning-struck, withered and singed, but her face was barely marked except for a large mole high on her cheek.”
81- “He respected Kaganovich. The man was shrewd and tough, cruel in the best sense.”
83- “Eric watched them cross the street, stunted humans in the shadow of the underwear gods that adorned the soaring billboards. These were figures beyond gender and procreation, enchanted women in men’s shorts, beyond commerce, even, men immortal in their muscle tone, in the clustered bulge at the crotch line.”
85- “She finished with a laugh. Yes, he admired her gift for cognate speech, shapely and persuasive, with a rubbed finish. This is what he wanted from her. Organized thoughts, challenging remarks. But there was something dirty in her laugh. It was scornful and course.”
104-105- “She talked. This was her job. She was born to it and got paid for it. But what did she believe? Her eyes were unrevealing. At least to him they were, faint, gray, remote to him, unalive to him, bright at times but only in the flush of an insight or conjecture. Where was her life? What did she do when she went home? Who was there besides the cat? He thought there had to be a cat.”
105- “’Men think about immortality. Never mind what women think. We’re too small and real to matter here,’ she said. ’Great men historically expected to live forever even as they supervised construction of their monumental tombs on the far bank of the river, the west bank, where the sun goes down.’”
111- “She had coral brown skin and well-defined cheekbones. There was a beeswax sheen to her lips. She liked to be looked at and made the act of undressing seem proudly public, an unveiling across national boarders with an element of slightly showy defiance.”
116- “He smoked and watched, feeling strong, proud, stupid and superior. He was also bored and a little dismissive.”
118- “He was enjoying this. It put her at a disadvantage, playing petty interrogator, and made him feel boyishly inventive and rebellious.”
133- “Scores of women walked alongside the limousines, in headscarves and djellabas, hands stained with henna, and barefoot, and wailing.”
'Annotations by Laura Hall'
Pg.71 "He told himself this was his wife."
Pg.77 "He hated him for being the object of a credible threat to his safety. And he hated and mocked him for his gynecoid upper body with its swag of dangling mammaries under the sheer white shirt."
Pg.83 "These were figures beyond gender and procreation, enchanted women in men's shorts, beyond commerce,even, men immortal in their muscle tone, in the clustered bulge at the crotchline."
Pg.97 "They wore bullet helmets and dark slickers, men with automatic weapons that were skeleton guns, all framework and no body."
Pg.105 "It would be a breach of trust, he thought, to ask if she had a cat, much less a husband, a lover, life insurance. What are your plans for the weekend? The question would be a form of assult. She would turn away, angry and humiliated. She was a voice with a body as afterthought, a wry smile that sailed through heavy traffic. Give her a history and she'd disappear."
Pg.112 "Men get possessive. What. You don't know that?"
Pg.117 "I took it up when I was fifteen. It's one of those things a girl takes up. It tells her she's more than a skinny body no one looks at. There's a certain drama in her life." "She notices herself. Then other people notice her. Then she marries one of them. Then they go to dinner."
Pg.121 "I just have to be indifferent." She began to cry. He'd never seen her cry and felt a little helpless. He put out a hand. It remained there, extended between them."
Pg.129 "He searched his pockets for money, feeling a little foolish, a little chagrined,having made and lost sums that could colonize a planet, but the woman was moving up the street on shoes with flapping soles and there was no bills or coins in any case to find inside his pants, or documents of any kind."
Pg.131 "They did the handclasp and half hug."
Pg.132 "It was so completely clear, another dead rapster, the protocol of the rap star who goes down humming in a spatter of gunshots after he fails to pay feudal tribute in the form of respect or money or women to some skittish individual. This was the day, was it not, for influential men to come to sudden messy ends."
Pg.133 "Scores of women walked alongside the limousines, in headscarves and djellabas, hands stained with henna, and barefoot, and wailing. Kozmo struck his chest again and so did Eric."
Pg.139 "He began to weep as the follow-up security detail went past, police van and several unmarked cars. he wept violently."
Wiki Entry 12: Cosmopolis p.157-209 (due March 11)
pg 157: The man was slim and black, medium height. He had a longish face.
Pg 161: “so you married that woman.”
“I never thought you’d get married so young……”
pg 162: “Your mother was the brains of the outfit. That’s where you get your mentality. Your mother had the wisdom…..”.
pg 163: “Nights are not so good if you have a wife and child……….”
Pg 174: Maybe it was fawn colored.
Pg 177: He felt her hand in his………where he turned in the dark and kissed her saying her name.
He’d forgotten the pleasure of her laugh………
Pg 178: She licked his face and shinnied up his body and……..he felt them jump and hum.
…………seized him by the hair, a thrilling fistful, drawing back his head back and bending to kiss him………Elise, sighing, tonguing, biting his mouth, breathing muggy words and dying murmurs, whisper-kissing, babytalking, her body fused to his……..in his hands.
Pg 183: My mother could tell you the actor’s name in every case. She could tell you the actor’s middle name, his marital history………
Pg 185: …….why else would he want to whisper her name to his handgun?
Women barefoot on parquet floors make me weak-kneed and crazy……..but how does she undress when she undresses?
I’m thinking is his picture in a frame on her dresser.
Pg 196: “It’s women’s shoes. It’s all the names they have for shoes………..”
“All right. I don’t have the manhood to know these names. Men know these names. You have the experience of manhood……..”
pg 207: …….., the lost taste of milk licked from his mother’s breast,………..
pg 208: She had the face for it, the bone structure and skin color, the tapered planes.
Keywords by Megan R.
pg.157- "The man was slim and black, medium height. He had a longish face."
pg.162- "Your mother was the brains of the outfit. That's where you get your mentality. Your mother had the wisdom."
pg.168- "He spoke quietly. There was a faint sheen of perspiration on Ibrahim's face. He looked wary and..."
pg.170- "He respected the eye. There was a story there, a brooding folklore of time and fate."
pg.173- "A woman coughed with a head jerk and a leap of the knee."
pg.174- "It ws the person nearest him, a woman lying facedown, an arm extended, palm turned up. She had light brown hair, or brownish blond. Maybe it was fawn-colored."
pg.178- "She licked his face and shinnied up his body and he could not remember where the money went."
pg.183- "My mother could tell you the actor’s name in every case."
pg.185- "Women barefoot on parquet floors make me weak-kneed and crazy."
pg.195- "You wanted me to be a helpless robot soldier but all i could be was helpless."
pg.196- "It’s women’s shoes. It’s all the names they have for shoes."
pg.199- "You should have listened to your prostate."
pg.204- "Eric had failed this docile and friendless man, raging man, this lunatic, and would fail him again, and had to look away."
p.162-“Your mother was the brains of the outfit. That’s where you get your mentality. Your mother had the wisdom.”…shows some sort of power in his mother and father’s marriage.
p.166-“He confided in them. It felt good to trust someone. It felt right to expose the matter in this particular place, where elapsed time hangs in the air, suffusing solid objects and men’s faces. This is where he felt safe.”…He normally doesn’t trust people and he finds comfort in the presence of men.
p.178-“The instant he knew he loved her…”...Finally realizes his love for his own wife.
p.185-“These mothers with their afternoons at the movies. We went to the movies because we were trying to learn how to be alone together. We were cold and lost and my father’s soul was trying to find us, to settle itself in our bodies, not that I want or need your sympathy.”…His father’s death greatly affected his relationship with his mother.
p.193-“Even when you self-destruct, you want to fail more, lose more, die more than others, stink more than others.”…always has to be ahead of everyone else.
p.196-“All right. I don’t have the manhood to know these names. Men know these names. You have the experience of manhood.”…men are supposed to know facts about guns.
p.207-“He’d come to know himself, untranslatably, through his pain.”…self-realization before his imminent death.
p.208-“he’d married when he’d married in order to have a widow to leave behind.”…fairly selfish reason to marry, he wants to make sure someone is left behind to mourn his death.
Annotations by Laura Hall
Pg.150 "I was briefly married to a disabled woman with a child."
Pg.161 "So you married that woman?"
Pg.178 "The instant he knew he loved her, she slipped down his body and out of his arms."
Pg.183 " My mother used to take me to the movies. After my father died my mother took me to the movies."
Pg.192 "Means nothing to me." He said these words into the face of Richard Sheets. Means nothing to me. He felt a trace of the old stale pleasure, dropping an offhand remark that makes a person feel worthless. So small and forgettable a thing that spins such disturbance."
Pg.196 "All right I don't have the man hood to know these names. Men know these names. You have the experience of manhood. I can't think that far ahead. It's all I can do to be a person."
157- “The man was slim and black, medium height. He had a longish face. He had an eye, the left, that was hard to find beneath the deep sag of the lid. The lower rim of the iris was visible, shut off in a corner. The man had a history, evidently. There were evening streaks in the white of his eye, a sense of blood sun. Things had happened in his life.”
166- “He was speaking to himself, to the man he’d been, scissors in hand, clipping a million heads.”
172- “There were three hundred naked people sprawled in the street. They filled the intersection, lying in haphazard positions, some bodies draped over others, some leveled, flattened, fetal, with children among them. No one was moving, no one’s eyes were open. They were a sight to come upon, a city of stunned flesh, the bareness, the bright lights, so many bodies unprotected and hard to credit in a place of ordinary human transit.”
175- “Didn’t Elise have sorrel hair? He could not see the woman’s face and she could not see his. But he’d spoken and she’d evidently heard him. If this was Elise, wouldn’t she react to the sound of her husbands voice? But then why would she? It was not an interesting thing to do.”
176-177- Describing the men, women and children contributing to the pile of bodies on the city street.
177- “He’d forgotten the pleasure of her laugh, a smoky half cough, a cigarette laugh out of an old black-and-white movie.”
180- “He stood in the street. There was nothing to do. The moment was empty of urgency and purpose. He hadn’t planned on this. Where was the life he’d always led? There was nowhere he wanted to go, nothing to think about, no one waiting. How could he take a step in any direction if all directions were the same?”
183-184- Description of men in movies, playing the hero, and strong enough to be able to kick down doors with a single kick.
185- “I can see his dumb bulk on top of her. Nancy Nancy Nancy. Or he says her full name because this is what he tells his gun. I’m wondering where does she live, what does she think about when she rides the bus to work. I can stand here and see her coming out of the bathroom drying her hair. Women barefoot on parquet floors make me weak-kneed and crazy. I know I’m talking to a gun that can’t respond but how does she undress when she undresses? I’m thinking did she meet him at her place or his place to do whatever they did.”
196- “’All right. I don’t have the manhood to know these names. Men know these names. You have the experience of manhood. I can’t think that far ahead. It’s all I can do to be a person.”
204- “Eric had failed this docile and friendless man, raging man, this lunatic, and would fail him again, and had to look away.”
207- Eric dissecting himself and who he is what he has become.