ENGL 328: Man

From Keywords for American Cultural Studies
Jump to: navigation, search

Entries in Samuel Johnson's 1836 Dictionary (listed in this order)

Man: s. human being; male; not a boy.

Man v. a. to furnish with men.

Universal definition: short for "mankind"

n, A general term to refer to the human race as a whole, short for "mankind". An OED entry ties together the ideas of man as an adult male, and man as a human being in general: "A human being (irrespective of sex or age). Man was considered until the 20th cent. to include women by implication, though referring primarily to males. It is now freq. understood to exclude women, and is therefore avoided by many people." In Genesis, the usage of "man" exhibits the fact that this form of "man" encompasses both males and females, stating: "So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them" (Genesis 1:27). This directly states that both male and female are regarded as "man." In many quotations, "it is difficult or impossible to tell whether man is intended to mean ‘person’ or ‘male human being’." ex. In the scripture, "No man can serve two masters," it would be assumed that exhortations of Jesus apply to both men and women, so "man" here is being used in the sense of "person."

Man when used as a shortened version of mankind often refers to "man" as a singular object, as if mankind all think and act as one. For example, in Edmond Burke's Speech on Mr. Fox's East India Bill, we can see several examples in short phrases like "the eye of man" and "the short life of man" (371).

While this usage becomes controversial once people begin questioning why man is the default to talk about both men and women, this universal usage is arguably the most neutral use of the word, if people really are using it inclusively and not to exclude or ignore women.

This idea of "man" as embracing men and women and not exclusively talking about males was seen in class just the other day. While giving their group's presentation on Wordsworth's "Tintern Abbey," Christopher began saying that "Men are changing." However, he very quickly corrected himself that "Men and women are changing - people in general." This is a great example of showing how this distinction is still used today.

Dichotomies created with "man"

Man gets used to denote certain clinical or more objective aspects of human beings, setting up certain dichotomies, but these become problematic when weighed down with the onerous connotations that are socially constructed.

Man vs. Boy n, An adult male person, as separate from a "boy," a male child.

Man vs. Woman n, An adult male person, as separate from a woman, or adult female person. Besides refering to typical anatomical differences, man may be used to denote the characteristics associated with an ideal adult male in society, in contrast to socially constructed women. These social constructions, of course, change.

In Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility she uses the word man exclusively to men a male human, many times in opposition to women. One of the first men introduced to the novel is John Dashwood, half brother to the Dashwood girls. John "was not an ill-disposed man, unless to be rather cold hearted, and rather selfish is to be ill-disposed: but he was, in general, well respected; for he conducted himself with proprietary in the discharge of his ordinary duties” (Austen 7). Here Austen shows us that respect for men in this 18th century, British upper crust society is not necessarily contingent upon their sensitivity or generosity but the ability to be task oriented and able to provide for families and spefically for women.

Another example of a man vs. woman dichotomy comes when Austen introduces Sir John Middleton and his wife. Austen explains the necessity of Sir John and his wife to be constantly surround by friends: “It was necessary to the happiness of both; for however dissimilar in temper and outward behaviour, they strongly resembled each other in that total want of talent and taste which confined their employments, unconnected with such as society produced, within a very narrow compass. Sir John was a sportsman, Lady Middleton a mother. He hunted and shot, and she humored her children; and these were their only resources” (Austen 34). Austen presents this couple as the stereotypical masculine husband, feminine wife model. She in a way makes fun of the starkness of this model as an exhibition of a very "narrow compass" perhaps meaning lack of true intelligence or lack of desire for true companionship. This criticism a somewhat progressive ideal for the era.

An interesting dichotomy presents itself in the Bible, Acts 17:26, where it says that God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth." I think it's interesting to note that although all of mankind can be traced back to one blood, that was then split up into different nations. Also, by application, God made all men (as in mankind), but from these men (male; Adam) created women (female; Eve). Thus, there is a distinction between both men and women; yet women are made from men, and both can thus be traced back to one blood.

Overlap--Men vs. Women and Children: Of course, there is considerable overlap between these first two distinctions, evidenced whenever groups of people are split with men on the one side and women and children on the other.

Man the mortal vs. the immortal Gods, Heroes, Kings and Poets: n, a mortal, human subject, defined by this condition and without any extraordinary attributes. Underlining man's mortality, Johnson states “All that man has to do is to live and die” (684). Defined as ordinary and indeed weakened by his mortality, "man" is often used in contrast to immortal gods, semi-mortal heroes, kings, and even poets.

"Man" in contrast with the immortal gods: In Equiano's Interesting Narrative, "man" is tied to temporality and mortality, in contrast with the eternal: "I thought I could very plainly trace the hand of God, without whose permission a sparrow cannot fall. I began to raise my fear from man to him alone" (88). Also: "I told them that as I could not get any right among men here, I hoped I should hereafter in Heaven" (94), which seems to imply that men change qualitatively in the afterlife--they are no longer flawed beings, and so maybe they are no longer "men" as we use the term.

This religious usage of "man" is prevalent throughout William Blake's "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell". The term "man" is used to describe a conscious being separate from God, the Devil and the angels. On page 29 (or Plate 4) "The Voice or the Devil" Blake lays out a definition of Man in the context of what errors people derive from religious texts concerning the "truth" about man, and how he perceives the truth. The following is what he believes to be false: "1) That Man has two real existing principles Viz: a Body & a Soul. 2) That Energy, call'd Evil, is alone from the Body, and Reason, call'd Good, is alone from the Soul. 3) That God will torment Man in Eternity for following his Energies" And the following is what he believes to be true of Man: "1) Man has no Body distinct from his Soul; for that called Body is a portion of Soul discern'd by the five Senses, the chief inlets of Soul in this age. 2) Energy is the only life and is from the Body and Reason is the bound or outward circumference of Energy. 3) Energy is Eternal Delight" To sum up, Blake's definition of man appears to be a conscious being, having both a soul and a body that are interconnect (each perceives/acts in regard to the other). Man is made up of Energies (desires) and Reason and acts on these instincts based on knowledge of right or wrong, or religious views.

"Man" in contrast with heroes and kings: Samuel Johnson's asserts that "Shakespeare has no heroes; his scenes are occupied only by men" (422) and that "His [Shakespeare's] story requires Romans or kings, but he thinks only on men" (423) opposes men with heroes and kings, respectively.

"Man" in contrast with the poet: Johnson says, "Let him be answered that Addison speaks the language of poets, and Shakespeare of men" (436), continuing a tradition at least as old as Antiquity and elaborated upon by the romantics that the poet, as a spokesperson of God, acquires a sort of immortality that sets him apart from ordinary men.

Wordsworth takes issue with this division in his "Preface to Lyrical Ballads." First of all, he emphasizes that poets must employ "the very language of men" as opposed to "poetic diction" (since "assuredly such personifications do not make any natural or regular part of that language"), for "Poets do not write for Poets alone, but for men." This requirement is directly related to Wordsworth's conception of the Poet: "What is meant by the word Poet? [...] He is a man speaking to men: a man, it is true, endowed with more lively sensibility, more enthusiasm and tenderness, who has a greater knwoledge of human nature, and a more comprehensive soul, than are supposed to be common among mankind; a man pleased with his own passions and volitions, and who rejoices more than other men in the spirit of life that is in him" (15). Poets might be qualitatively different than other men, but Wordsworth does not place them in a different category from other men, for "among the qualities there enumerated as principally conducing to form a Poet, is implied nothing differing in kind from other men, but only in degree" (22). Humanity is the common denominator that allows the poet to communicate with his fellow men: "The Poet writes under one restriction only, namely, the necessity of giving immediate pleasure to a human Being possessed of that information which may be expected from him, not as a lawyer, a physician, a mariner, an astronomer, or a natural philosopher, but as a Man" (19).

Opposed to greater entities and beings, "man" has a diminishing sense. But there is also a move in the other direction, whereby "man" used in its general sense is elevated when compared either to animals or to people deemed inferior.

Man vs. Inferior Creatures Parsing the labels that get used to categorize people, Equiano poses the rhetorical question, "And do not the assembly which enacted it, deserve the appellation of savages and brutes rather than of Christians and men? It is an act at once unmerciful, unjust, and unwise; which for cruelty would disgrace an assembly of those who are called barbarians" (109). While Equiano recognizes and indeed catelogues the cruelties and inhuman attitudes and actions perpetuated by men, he believes that the appellation of "man" should be more discriminatingly applied, but that all people should be treated as men. In arguing against slavery, Equiano says that "it raises the owner to a state as far above man as it depresses the slave below it [...] and sets a distinction between them," and askes, "Are slaves more useful by being thus humbled to the condition of brutes, than they would be if suffered to enjoy the privileges of men?" (111) The problem, then, is that all humans are not allowed to exercise their "first natural right of mankind": "equality and independence" (111). The fundamental issue of slavery is defining who gets to be part of humanity and who are men, because if you recognize another as a man, according to Equiano, you cannot treat him as less: "By changing your conduct, and treating your slaves as men, every cause of fear would be banished" (112). It would then be interesting to interrogate what it means to Equiano to be treated as a man.

Conjunctions created with "man"

Besides looking at the opposing ideas that swirl about and help create the definition of "man," it's also interesting to note the conjunctions that get formed with "man," where the relationship between the two words might be described as codependent. Two examples of this are man and rationality and man and nature.


Man and Rationality (also manly and rational) Aristotle was among the first, in his classification of substances into smaller and smaller categories until he reached genus and species, to separate men from other creatures (including women) based on their capacity for reason.


Man and Nature In many instances, the word man seems to be tightly associated with nature, both in the sense of "a person's nature" and nature as in the outdoors. Some examples:

1) Men are run by nature/instincts/urges: "...supposes man to act from a brute impulse, and pursue a certain degree of inclination without any choice of the object" (Johnson 178).

2) Men are shown as a mirror of nature, show things how they really are: "to turn the eye immediately upon mankind, as upon a mirror which shows all that presents itself without discrimination" (Johnson 177).

Often, the intertwined ideas of man and nature seem to come about through poetry:

3) Johnson on pastoral poetry: "Poetry is nearly of the same antiquity with rational nature, and since the life of the first men was certainly rural, we may reasonably conjecture that [...] their composures [...] were pastoral hymns" (Johnson 190).

4) Preface to Lyrical Ballads: "Poetry is the image of man and nature." Also, the poet "considers man and nature as essentially adapted to each other" (20). This harmonious perspective of man and nature differs from those that would see them as fundamentally at odds with one another. This harmony is best found in poetry that treats the "humble and rustic life," "because in that condition the passions of men are incorporated with the beautiful and permanent forms of nature" (5).

5) A very interesting quote from William Blake's "Marriage of Heaven and Hell" reads, "Where man is not nature is barren" (p.34) I took this to mean there is a great connectedness between man and nature. It seems to insinuate that man is in fact and intracle part of nature, so much so that nature cannot exist to its full potential in the absence of man.

6) "Native, Nature, and Man": These three keywords are all tied together in the idea of a State of Nature. In Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, he posits that in the State of Nature, men will tend to act towards their native or brutish impulses, each fending for himself. He says that "during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man." Each man, in this state, is given the natural right to perform any action necessary to preserve his own safety and liberty, and he describes life as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." (taken from Wikipedia)


"Man" in the context of war

v, To tend to a position assigned to you. ex: "To man" your station.

n, Nautical. A ship. Often used in combination: a merchantman; a man-of-war (answers.com definition of man). Equiano very frequently uses the term man of war in terms of this usage. ex: "On the 21st of April we renewed our efforts to land the men, while all the men of war were staioned along the shore to cover it." (Equiano 88).

"n," A fighting man, a man-at-arms, a soldier; a member of a force fighting under the command of a specified person; (now) esp. a soldier, sailor, or airman as distinguished from an officer. Chiefly in pl. (sixth definition under the man entry from the (http://dictionary.oed.com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/cgi/entry/00300790?query_type=word&queryword=man&first=1&max_to_show=10&sort_type=alpha&result_place=5&search_id=8AwE-NoarpW-51&hilite=00300790 OED)

See roles are frequently associated with masculinity under "manly" below.

Different forms of "man"

MAN: In the context of husband. ex) "I now pronounce you man and wife."


Compound forms The Merriam-Webster dictionary gives the following distinction for using man along with other words: "a man belonging to a particular category (as by birth, residence, membership, or occupation) —usually used in combination <councilman>". It's hard to tell if this usage was originally intended to be gender-neutral, but the creation of parallel terms like "councilwoman" or "mail carrier" to either explicitly counteract a perceived sexism or more deliberately create a gender-neutral term shows that "man" in these instances has been interpreted as referring to males specifically.

Many times (though clearly not all), it seems that adding this compound gives the word a positive or negative spin. Most compound-man words seem to have some connotative emotion attached to them: gentleman (positive: kind, decent, moral, upright), businessman/councilman (positive: classy, refined, successful), madman (negative: insane, irrational), highwayman (negative: vagabond, dangerous, unstable).

More on "gentleman" as described in Jane Austin's novel "Sense and Sensibility". A gentleman or upstanding man is described (and implied) as being well educated, wealthy (preferably land-owning), well-mannered, and respectable in society.


MANLY:

1) adj, "belonging to human beings; human" (OED) Wordsworth's Preface to Lyrical Ballads: "But this would be to encourage idleness and unmanly despair" (18); "But various causes might be pointed out why, when the style is manly, and the subject of some importance, words metrically arranged will long continue to impart such a pleasure to mankind as he who proves the extent of that pleasure will be desirous to impart" (24). This usage is interesting because we're seeing the now-obsolete usage meaning in the second instance ("manly style" just referring to using the real language of mankind), but there also seems to be something gendered about this usage that belongs to the definition "having those qualities or characteristics traditionally associated with men as distinguished from women or children" (OED). This seems especially true in the first instance: it could mean that "despair" is not becoming of the human race, or that it is not becoming of particularly the male members.

Edmund Burke uses the term "manly" in a similarly interesting way. On page 367 he writes "with a capacity for a sound and manly policy." This struck me because it connotes a meaning of fairness or rationality which is very different from the rest of our examples of "manly," hearkening back to that obsolete definition.

The ambiguous nature of this word is remarked upon by Johnson: "He [Minim] has several favourite epithets, of which he has never settled the meaning, but which are very commodiously applied to books which he has not read, or cannot understand. One is manly, another is dry, another stiff, and another flimsy; sometimes he discovers delicacy of style, and sometimes meets with strange expressions (295).

2) adj, Inflected Form(s):man·li·er; man·li·est 1. having qualities generally associated with a man : strong virile 2. appropriate in character to a man <manly sports>— man·li·ness noun

Willoughby, in Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility is seen as extremely manly. He is presented as a “A gentleman carrying a gun, with two pointers playing round him, [as he] was passing up the hill and within a few yards of Marrianne, when her accident happened” (Austen 43). Of course he immediately puts down his gun and comes to her rescue. “The gentleman” picks her up in his arms and carries her home. Once home Marrianne and the others are in awe of his manliness: “His manly beauty and more than common gracefulness were instantly the theme of general admiration” (Austen 44). He is heroic, strong and picturesque to Marriane. Later Austen presents Marriane in admiration of something so inconsequential as his “manly dress”, a shooting jacket.

Willoughby is the picture of 18th century masculinity in this scene; honorable, handsome, strong, hunting… His character does not stop at these stereotypical indicators of masculinity. As emotional Marrianne’s ideal mate he enjoys the arts, music, poetry. In this he seemingly strays away from more rugged ideal of man and manliness to present the ideal 18th century man as a renaissance man of sorts. Eventually however, we see that he lacks true sensitivity when he deserts Marrianne and marries for money when he lacks it.

Edward Ferrars, in Sense and Sensibility seems to be the anti-manly according to modern standards. His first impression upon a woman (in this case Elinor) is much different than that of Willoughby: "His abilities in every respect improve as much upon acquaintance as his manners and person. At first sight, his address is certainly not striking; and his person can hardly be called handsome, till the expression of his eyes, which are uncommonly good, and the general sweetness of his countenance, is perceived" (Austen 22). Edward is not a rugged, strong, manly man but is on of the most successful at the end of the novel. With this, it seems that Austen believes that the model of strong, overpowering, masculine man and submissive, ultra feminine wife joined in a relationship is somehow not working. Those that end up most happy at the end of the novel are Elinor and Edward, two people to defy gender norms and enter into a relationship as a fulfilling companionship.

It is interesting to remark the frequently-used phrase "manly man," which could be argued to illustrate that the word "man" was/is thought to be insufficient to automatically get across the stereotypical connotations intended by the speaker, who feels the need to qualify it with "manly."

Qualities stereotypicaly associated with a man:strong (physically), logical, unemotional, athletic, brave, large (physically larger than a woman), rational, in control, rugged, outdoorsy (example: "The Brawny Man from Brawny paper towels").

Many of these "manly" qualities are best exhibited in the song "Gaston" from Disney's Beauty and the Beast".

<"http://www.flickr.com/photos/51464544@N00/2228130486/> This image is of the two hosts and frequent female participants of "The Man Show". It aired on Comedy Central 1999-2003. The hosts of the show (Adam Corolla and Jimmy Kimmel) basically play up and overstate ridiculous and humorous (or at least intended to me humorous) atrributes stereotypical to middle class, white, heterosexual men. The show notoriously involved women dancing and jumping on trampolines (the women were called Juggies), beer drinking, gambling and other things that a "man" would do (see picture above)...This is the MAN show after all! The man show hosted by two seasoned comedians depicted generalizations or common atrributes of this certain male demographic while making light or making fun of ridiculous stereotypical traits.

The Manly Attitude: The Manly Way of Life - Website showing young men how to be "manly men," as opposed to "all those whipped Girlie Boys."

How To Give a Man-Hug - A video showing the difference between a "man" hug and a "girl" hug. Again shows men how to act "manly" since men are even expected to hug differently, so as not to be mistaken for a girlie boy.

How to Be Manly An interesting page...It's a site which offers wiki-format manuals called wikihow.com. This particular manual is "how to be manly".

http://depts.washington.edu/keywords/wiki/images/d/de/200px-David_von_Michelangelo.jpg

Michelangelo's "David". According to Wikipedia "Michelangelo's David is the classical image of youthful male beauty in Western art". "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man"

The following roles are frequently associated with masculinity.

Warrior: Soldier, Warrior, Airman, Commando, Ninja, Knight, Marine, Mercenary, Samurai, Seaman, Sailor, Viking, Freedom Fighter, Legionary, EspionageAgent

Law Officer: Police Officer, S.W.A.T., Coastguard, FBIAgent, CustomsOfficer, District Attorney

Non Military Uniformed Occupation: Firefighter, Fireman, Park Ranger, Pilot, Doctor

Criminal: Assassin, duellist, mobster, murderer, pimp, pirate, rapist, supervillain

Hero: Superhero, War Hero

Laborer: Construction worker, demolitionist, dock worker, foreman, lumberjack, Mechanic, Truck Driver, Cowboy

Intelligence: Scientist, Engineer, Software Engineer, Mathematician, Professor, Inventor

Artist: Artist, Film director, Rock musician, heavy metal musician

Sports: Athlete: Basketball, Rugby, Rowing, Athletics, Bodybuilding, Football, Martial Artist, Baseball, Hockey, Wrestling, Lacrosse, Hunter,

Nobility: Emperor, King, Prince, Duke, Count, Earl, Baron, Lord, Shogun, Pharaoh, Asantehene, Caliph

Leader: Head of state, General, CEO,

Family: Patriarch: Father, grandfather, uncle, Brother

Spiritual Leader: guru, priest, reverend, Ayatollah, Preacher, monk, Lama, Rabbi

[from Wikipedia entry on 'MAN' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man]


File:Manly drinking.jpg ----- File:Manly essence.jpg

Images found on Google Image. First image: Men even have to drink "manly drinks." Very often seen today: no man would order a margarita or daiquiri if trying to seem "manly." Second image: It is perfectly acceptable to pass off men being rude as just them being a "guy."


File:Boys feminist.jpg

I thought this image was interesting in noting the tension between what is considered manly and what is not. Based on above information on our site, it would seem that to be "feminist" would make you un-manly, yet here is a man holding a sign saying that "Boys can be feminist too" (note the word boy, not man, though... interesting). There was also a small blurb along with the picture, which was taken at a feminist march for Choice: "Men! Contrary to myths surrounding feminism, not all feminists are women. This young man with his hand-lettered sign seemed like an oddity when I first arrived at the march grounds. Shortly after I took the photo, his friend came up to him wearing a "This is what a feminist looks like" (This was THE shirt to have, by the way. They were quickly sold out.) I was a bit awed and saw that there was a group of 8 men marching together. Throughout the day, the feminist men became common-place. My awe at seeing openly feminist men began to fade. But I was still impressed by the number of men with their hand-painted signs and their cool t-shirts. I could used to that, let me tell you. -CC"


Manly in the 1800s: Talks about a certain kind of sword-fighting/fencing from the late 1800s which was considered manly: "Up until the late 1800s, dueling typically consisted of fast, mobile thrusting and parrying, with no fixed distance between the duelers agreed upon or specific limitations levied upon their interactions. Several types of weapons were commonly used, including the sabre, the epee, and the foil. In about 1850, sabre dueling in German universities underwent substantial change as the practice twained into serious dueling (for honor) and ritual contests (the 'Mensur', which in Latin means 'Measure')." The article talks about the art as "a fascinating product of a system that incorporates martial sword arts into the rituals of manly maturity and growth that are unique to the German university system," and of the "attraction of the Mensur as a personal test of manhood." The article then goes on to give some insight into what else may be considered manly at the time: "the Mensur requires more than mere physical courage and emotional control, since it cultivates a sense of gentlemanly conduct, personal responsibility, and refined awareness of how the individual fits into the larger patterns of life. All of these in turn promote personal growth in ways that will carry over into mature adult life."

Other sites having to do with "gentlemen" in the 19th century:
1) The Victorian Gentleman: Online resource on the 19th Century gentleman. One section depicts "scenes of a gentleman's life - drinking, hunting, gambling & racing."
2) The Gentleman's Page: A website devoted to 19th Century gentleman. Goes into detail on what they should wear and how they should behave in different social situtations (such as with ladies, at the table, when calling, and even when being humorous).


2) adv, In a manly manner Merriam-Webster


MANNISH:

1) adj, Characteristic of, suggestive of, or resembling a man; exclusively used to describe women. ex: "The woman was somewhat mannish," "She wore mannish clothing." I also feel that this word may be somewhat more modern than the previous related words, and to my knowledge have not stumbled upon it in any older texts.

Also mannishness, noun as in "As she approached sixty, she had a face-lift, which, oddly, heightened the mannishness that her sexual pliancy had dissembled" (Thurman, Judith. "The Roving Eye: Lee Miller, artist and muse." Jan 21, 2008 The New Yorker)


MANPRIS: 1) n, from "man" and "capris": as the obvious etymology of the word suggests, capri-style pants made and worn by men


MURSE: 1) n, from "man" and "purse": a purse-like accessory carried by a man


Right-hand man ex. "But the captain liked me also very much, and I was entirely his right-hand man" (Equiano, 116).

Sayings Utilizing Man

1.man of men: n. an exceptional or powerful man. Now rare. (a1470 MALORY Morte Darthur (Winch. Coll.) 41 "Nero that was a myghty man of men.")

2. a man among men: n. a person regarded as epitomizing manhood or mankind; (esp. as a term of praise) one who is the equal of or an example to all others; an active, well-rounded member of society. (1894 R. KIPLING Jungle Bk. 28 "Because I was all but your brother in blood, I promise that when I am a man among men I will not betray ye to men as ye have betrayed me.")

3. to play the man: to act in a manly fashion. Now rare. (1548 N. UDALL et al. tr. Erasmus Mark in Paraphr. New Test. i. 12-15 "Thou haste here behaued thyselfe valiauntly, and played the manne a while.")

4.to the last man: without exception (= to a man at sense 17j); until every person is dead, or until only one person remains alive. (1601 P. HOLLAND tr. Pliny Hist. World II. XXXIV. vii. 495 "They bound themselves by a sacred law and oth to fight it out to the last man.")

5. a man or a mouse (also man or mouse): (originally) a successful person or a failure (obs.); (in later use) a courageous person or a coward. (1541 Schole Ho. Women 386 in W. C. Hazlitt Remains Early Pop. Poetry Eng. IV. 120 "Fear not, she saith vnto her spouse, A man or a Mouse whether be ye.")

6. every (also each) man for himself: look out for your own interests before those of anyone else; (also) designating a situation in which each person is preoccupied with his or her own safety or advancement. (1729 J. GAY Polly II. xii. 48 "Every man for himself, say I There is no being even with mankind, without that universal maxim.")

7. to a man: without exception; including every person. (1763 Ann. Reg. 159 "The soldiers,..immediately after roll calling,..assembled to a man.")

8. to be man enough: to have sufficient strength, courage, resolution, etc. (for a task, opponent, etc.). Chiefly with infinitive. Also in extended use. (1863 TROLLOPE Rachel Ray II. vii. 138 "He was not man enough to stand up and face this new enemy unless he were backed by his old friends.")

  • all sayings and literary examples from the "man" entry of the OED



Cluster words with Man

1. Sex
2. Humanity - In Williams' definition of Humanity: "All men are human, or in the earlier spelling humane, but all humans are either men (in the specialized male sense) or women or children" (148). In this sense, Humanity serves as a synonym for mankind, and also shows the tension between man/women+children.
3. Civilization - alongside mankind