ENGL 350: Civilization

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CIVILIZATION

HISTORY OF THE WORD

The word Civilization comes from the Latin word civilis, the adjective form of civis, meaning a "citizen" or "townsman" governed by the law of his city. Civilization can be used at times to connotate either an entire society or synonymously with the broader term of culture; [1].


Popular/Broad Definitions

Civilization can be seen as a progress towards modernity or a thing that encompasses a wide variety of humans into a society.

Civilization as a universal and general term (typically a noun) that widely incorporates all "advanced" peoples and societies, for instance: "This said development threatens all of civilization." The word can also be used merely to mean a place where people live, as opposed to an uninhabited land, but the word usually contains more connotation than this.

Civilization can be used synonymously with the term culture. Civilization can also be used to refer to a society as a whole.

Civilization as a term in contrast to anarchy or barbarity, meant to imply social order, cultural development, and/or economic sophistication within a nation, region, or people. One example of this contrast is present in Jefferson: "The women are submitted to unjust drudgery. This I believe is the case with every barbarous people[...] It is civilization alone which replaces women in the enjoyment of thier natural equality. That first teaches us to subdue the selfish passions, and to respect those rights in other which we value in ourselves" (p. 64-5). When looking on the Merriam-Webster dictionary,civilization was used in this context, as describing a state of "relatively high level of cultural and technological development."

Also, civilization can be paired with adjectives describing a certain area of the world, for example "Western Civilization." This is an adjective usually connected with the word civilization, and it narrows the focus of the world to include studies primarily having to do with the history and culture of Europe and the Americas, with little emphasis on the Eastern parts of the world or the Southern hemisphere. This narrowing of the context of the word leads in part to the connotation of the word as used below, as a state in which an area in the West is more culturally superior to other regions that lie outside of Western Civilization. Examples can be used from Wheatley, when she is rescued from the 'Dark Continent' of Africa and brought to the "promised land" where she is taught civilized languages and forced to adhere to a civilized religion.

Civilization as in "civility", in meaning the practice or set of rules, etiquette, manners, and courtesy that characterize a people as "civilized". More than previous definitions perhaps, this use of the term seems to have the most overt, distinct duality; as in this way, it may suggest both sophistication, refinement, or cultural awareness, while also, when interpreted sardonically, suggesting associations with elitist self-interest, pomp, and/or ceremony. Related words to civilization include customs, manners, values, folklore, heritage, and tradition; antonyms for the word include barbarism, savagery, wilderness, and wildness. The elitist self-interest that is associated with the word may come from the words association with these words, as traditions and heritage tend to create a type of arrogance in ones own way as the right lifestyle. In regards to Religion and Imperialism [see below]

Civilization as an entity "perpetually contested, perpetually threatened," is an idea focusing on both what civilization is and what it is not, suggesting that civilization, as a concept, is always under attack by those forces who would corrupt it (Shields). From this thinking, civilization has, historically been thought of as a progression; essentially, Western civilization assumed that more primitive societies would, with time, evolve to be more familiar to their standards. Such reasoning is evinced in Hobomok, as he states that, "In most nations the path of antiquity is shrouded in darkness," implying that the "civilization" or modernization has saved, in a linear progression, the society from its earlier "darkness".

Inherent in this idea, Civilization seems to need a sort of constant reaffirming to "protect" it from the forces of anarchy, barbarity, etc. That no two societies, or people within a society, may agree on the exact tenets that comprise "civilization," exacerbates the difficulty in defining what a "civilization" is, or may be. While the western world, according to Shields in Keywords, associates mass "literacy, centralized government, and law and order" to the term, arguably, religion and national outlook and other pivotal attributes play a crucial role in shaping this as well. Resultantly, "civilization" is likely not (except in situations of pending foreign domination or conquest)under the assault of figurative or physical forces, but rather embittered philosophies, perhaps political or academic in nature, that may challenge popular "world view" that define "civilization" to a given people from both within and externally.


From the word Civilization can be derived the word "civil", wherein the term adopts many divergent meanings. (below) Civil, as in cordial, friendly ex> "he was a civil fellow" or "let us be civil" Civil, as a term in political science, implying the internal or public nature of an event, discourse, or person. ex> civil war or civil service. One example of this use can be taken from our text, in which Jefferson uses the word in the context of "Civil government being the sole object of forming societies, its administration must be conducted by common consent." (p. 91). Also, Jefferson describes "The governor is head of the military, as well as civil power" (p. 95). In these two contexts, the word civil is clustered around words that imply organization and order in a society, which is fitting with the above definitions of a civilization as a advanced, orderly society.


Predominant Usages in Course Texts

Franklin- Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

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The Introduction to The Autobiography states: "Franklin gave classic expression to three powerful ingredients of the American Dream: the ideals of material success, of moral regeneration, and of social progress" (p. ix). I believe this sums up the context in which civilization can be seen throughout this novel. To Franklin the idea of social progress is synonymous with the idea of civilization; the two are correlated in a positive manner, in that with continued social progress there is an inherent understanding of a culture also becoming more civilized in nature, and vice versa. One cannot exist without the other.

The Introduction also states: "Perhaps no facet of the Autobiography is more prophetic and representative of American culture than his quest for the New and Improved. In this he incarnated the profoundly American belief that things can be changed" (p. xii) and the introduction to Franklin's essays and letters declares Franklin to be a civic improver amongst other things (p.178). I think this also implies the idea of civilization in the context of continuing advancement, in creating improved versions of things already in existence, and of innovating and inventing (since Franklin was the Father of Invention) completely new things also. In this context, civilization is not an ideal to which we strive to achieve, but an ongoing progress to which there can be no end, since it seems that according to Franklin, that society can always be improved upon. This is a motivating ideal that is truly American in the idea that one can always better oneself individually (Franklin epitomizes this) and that collectively we can constantly strive to better our culture, our society, our nation, our world, our universe, and on it goes to no end.

Jefferson-Notes on the State of Virginia

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One example of this contrast is present in Jefferson: "The women are submitted to unjust drudgery. This I believe is the case with every barbarous people[...] It is civilization alone which replaces women in the enjoyment of thier natural equality. That first teaches us to subdue the selfish passions, and to respect those rights in other which we value in ourselves" (p. 64-5).

One example of this use can be taken from our text, in which Jefferson uses the word in the context of "Civil government being the sole object of forming societies, its administration must be conducted by common consent." (p. 91). Also, Jefferson describes "The governor is head of the military, as well as civil power" (p. 95). In these two contexts, the word civil is clustered around words that imply organization and order in a society, which is fitting with the above definitions of a civilization as a advanced, orderly society.

Jefferson seems to utilize a more broad understanding of "civilization" in aspects of his book, attributing social law, morality, and order under its breadth. He ponders, almost as a detached anthropologist, as to why the Indian societies experience so little crime; he notes that rather than submitting to "laws, coercive power, or any shadow of government," (popular tenets of what may widely define "civilization")the "savages" maintain themselves peacefully in small groups, as "sheep" without the presence of "wolves," (Jefferson 99).

In Jefferson, this connection between civilization and religion can be likewise noted. As he states Queen Elizabeth "licensed Sir Walter Raleigh to search for remote heathen lands, not inhabited by Christian people..." (p. 116). In this context, religion, specifically the Christian religion, is necessary for a land to be civilized and not 'heathen.'


Also, Jefferson seems to use civilization both as a progression towards modernity in which he can rank different civilizations according to thier development by HIS standards. He feels that the Indian civilizations are less advanced and that perhaps the British civilization lacks some of the authenticity that the new American civilization has. Jefferson is very concerned with categorizing, and this is prevelant in his descriptions of various groups of people.


Wheatley- Collected Poems

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[2]

For instance, Wheatley states, maybe satirically, that upon arrival to the colonies, she was "refined"; saved from her "diabolic" origin through white protestantism, she suggests both the "refining" quality associated with civility as well as the ethnocentric temperament, in at least this instance, of that said civility.

Walker-Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World

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"We will notice the sufferings of Israel some further, under heathen Pharoah, compared with ours under the enlightened Christians of America" (p. 11). This quote is significant in its connection between a specific religion (Christianity)and the concept of civilization in the late 18th century, during which this book, and many of the texts we have read so far, have been written. Throughout his text, Walker explicitly asserts that religion, particularly Christianity, is either directly linked to, or is synonymous with, civilization; through "Appeal," he never argues this directly, but rather utilizes this axiomatic understanding of the keywords to progress his more central debate.

As he states, "While they were heathens, they were too ignorant for such barbarity. But being Christians, enlighted and sensible, they are completely prepared for such hellish cruelties" (Walker 19). The 'they' in this passage refers to the White man, specifically the White American. This quote shows how barbarous actions sometimes accompany civilization, and how religion is often used merely as a pretense to cultural superiority.

In David Walker's Appeal, there is a connection with civilization and the word 'colonial'. In chapter 4, Walker strongly criticizes the idea that the way to deal with the problem of 'coloured people' is to send them back to a colony in Africa. One of the ideas is that off the Coast of Africa, "ample provision might be made for the colony itself, and it might be rendered instrumental into that extensive quarter of the globe, of the arts, civilization, and Christianity" (Walker 48). In this quote, civilization is used more in the context of being civilized and it is clustered with a specific religion. It is more in keeping with the Western model of civilization


Rowson- Charlotte Temple

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Charlotte Temple never explicitly uses the term civilization, however some definitions of this term are still implied by the novel. For instance, during that period of civilization, the woman clearly had much less clout than the man, and moral duty was of utmost importance, especially for women. When Charlotte neglects her moral obligations, she is cast out of society, a pariah barely able to survive, destitute and looked upon as a common prostitute & not fit for marriage or even friendship by any self-respecting man or woman of that time. This gives the reader of the novel plenty of clues of how civilizations, including certain roles & societal guidelines have changed from that time to our current civilization.

Lydia Maria Francis Child -Hobomok'

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[3]

In Hobomok, there civilization is meant more in terms of cultivated, civilized regions. There is a definite connection with the religiousity associated with cultivation.

In Hobomok, it is also interesting to note how religious language accompanies thoughts on "civilized" society. In the fourth chapter, in the dispute between Hobomok and Corbitant, Hobomok is described as musing about God's wonders when he is looking over Salem. His connection with the White settlers sets him on a different level than the other Indians of the region, and he is more taken by sentimental musings because of his mere collaboration with the white settlers.

"Even Hobomok, whose language was brief, figurative, and poetic, and whose nature was unwarped by the artifices of civilized life, was far preferable to them." (151)

"Mr. Conant shook his head despairingly. "I had made up my mind to her watery grave," said he; "but to have her lie in the bosom of a savage, and mingle her prayers with a heathen, who knoweth not God, is hard for a father's heart to endure." (167). This quote seems to contradict one of our earlier assertions that Hobomok is deemed more civilized, as he is ultimately seen as a savage and a heathen, despite his association with the white man. Perhaps this just further exemplifies how hard it is to classify someone as civilized, and how it is often hard to fit someone into a distinct bracket. This quote also can be used as evidence for the connection between the keywords civilization and religion.


The Narrative of Robert Adams A Barbary Captive

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The word civilization is used on the second page of the narrative, in the context that "His answers disclosed so extraordinary a series of adventures and sufferings, as at first to excite a suspicion that his story was an invention[...]when they considered how widely his account of Tombuctoo differed from the notions generally entertained of the magnificence of that city, and of the civilization of its inhabitants" (9). This quote implies that the civilization in Tombucott was NOT magnificent, and the word civilization in the context of a group of people being civilized or technologically advanced. It is not used in the broader sense of the word, but it implies a sort of refinement in the inhabitants characters that would make the society somehow culturally significant and interesting for the Europeans.

The only other mention of anything remotely related to our keyword was on page 47 of the narrative when it is discussing the treatment received by Adams and the Portuguese boy by the Negroes of Timboctoo, in this paragraph: "Neither Adams nor the Portuguese boy were ever subjected to any restraint whilst they remained at Timboctoo. They were allowed as much food, and as often as they pleased; they were never required to work. In short, they never experienced any act of incivility or unkindness from any of the Negroes, except when they were taken prisoners in company with the Moors engaged in stealing them." So in this context, the implied meaning of civilization would be related to the humane treatment of others. A civil-ization suggests a society that is refined in some sense, or conducts themselves in a respectable, humanitarian manner when presented with persons of an alternate culture or society.

Another time when the word civilization is specifically used in the Narrative of Robert Adams is on pages 124 and 125, in which the editor states that "We shall therefore conclude, by noticing only two important circumstances, respectively propitious and adverse to the progress of discovery and civilization, which the present Narrative decidedly confirms; viz. the mild and tractable natures of the Pagan Negroes of Soudan, and their friendly deportment towards strangers, on the one hand,-and, on the other, the estended and baneful range of that great original feature of African society-slavery"(124). This is a very loaded quote, which clusters civilization with religion and African. Civilization is used in the sense mentioned above as a progression towards some end of being more refined. Another example of this dominant use comes on the next page, when the editor states that "At a time when the civilization and improvement of Africa, and the extension of our intercourse with the natives of that long-neglected country, seem to be among the leading objects of the British government and nation..."(125). Again, civilization is paired with another noun that implies progress (in this case the word is improvement) and there is a clear message that the British have decided to take on the responsibility of civilizing Africa, as it has long been overlooked. The purposes for civilization, however, may not be altogether altruistic, as they plan to take advantage of the slavery that the editors have posed originated in African society, therefore making this group of people a less civilized race than the Europeans.



Antonyms

Antonyms of civilization tend to revolve around similar concepts of darkness, evinced in the texts we've read in appearances as "diabolic," "heathen," and the land of "savages". As stated previously, one broad characterization of civilization may be synonymous with the "Western World" whose basis seemingly derives from western technological and cultural achievements. In addition to the above mentioned duality of our understanding of civilization, its use in contexts that tend to pejoratively regard the alternatives to civilization may effuse additional consideration of the more negative, elitist connotation.

""Civilization"" is also seen in opposition to the terms "culture," "nation," "barbarity," and "rural primitivism" as noted by David Shields on page 45 of the Keywords text. This was all during the aftermath of the French Revolution.

Civilization as pertaining to other Fields and/or Keywords

RELIGION

Civilization & Religion (our two keyterms) are inextricably related as well. It seems that throughout history that the progress of humanity has been dependent on religion. A person was not considered "civilized" unless they conformed to the dominant religion of the day, and entire communities were judged on their level of "civility" based on their faith, as well as how well they conformed to that faith, or demonstrated that faith, which in most cases was synonymous with Christianity. Even for so called "heathen" communities, the basis for most any culture was centered on some type of religion, making "religion" a fundamental requirement for establishing any type of "civilization". It is important to note how a 'civlized' religion implies an 'uncivilized' religion, and the ranking of races and ethnic groups based solely on their religious beliefs.

An example of this connection between civilization and religion comes from our readings. In David Walker's Appeal, in he asserts that the Black slaves are treated worse in the Christian, civilized nation than the Israelites were treated in the heathen, Egyptian nation. As Walker states, "We will notice the sufferings of Israel some further, under heathen Pharoah, compared with ours under the enlightened Christians of America" (p. 11). This quote is significant in its connection between a specific religion (Christianity)and the concept of civilization in the late 18th century, during which this book, and many of the texts we have read so far, have been written. Throughout his text, Walker explicitly asserts that religion, particularly Christianity, is either directly linked to, or is synonymous with, civilization; through "Appeal," he never argues this directly, but rather utilizes this axiomatic understanding of the keywords to progress his more central debate. Perhaps exemplifying this sentiment most clearly, in a footer he states, "it is my solemn belief, that if the world ever be Christianized, (which must certainly take place before too long)" we must "send out missionaries to convert the Heathens..." etc (20). Clearly, while Walker's work expresses radically "progressive" elements in some regards, he also perpetuates ideological doctrine that has since become markedly associated, negatively, with imperialism and religious coercion.

David Walker also uses the opposition between civilized society and heathen society in conjunction with religion (specifically the Christian religion). As he states, "While they were heathens, they were too ignorant for such barbarity. But being Christians, enlighted and sensible, they are completely prepared for such hellish cruelties" (Walker 19). The 'they' in this passage refers to the White man, specifically the White American. This quote shows how barbarous actions sometimes accompany civilization, and how religion is often used merely as a pretense to cultural superiority.

In Hobomok, there civilization is meant more in terms of cultivated, civilized regions. There is a definite connection with the religiousity associated with cultivation. An example of this connection is: "and with the cultivated environs of her busy cities, which seem every where blushing into a perfect Eden of fruit and flowers. " (p.1) Another example:

That light, which had arisen amid the darkness of Europe, stretched its long, luminous track across the Atlantic, till the summits of the western world be- came tinged with its brightness. During many long, long ages of gloom and corruption, it seemed as if the pure flame of religion was every where quenched in blood; -- but the watchful vestal had kept the sacred flame still burning deeply and fervently. (p. 2).

In Hobomok, it is also interesting to note how religious language accompanies thoughts on "civilized" society. In the fourth chapter, in the dispute between Hobomok and Corbitant, Hobomok is described as musing about God's wonders when he is looking over Salem. His connection with the White settlers sets him on a different level than the other Indians of the region, and he is more taken by sentimental musings because of his mere collaboration with the white settlers. When looking at Salem, Hobomok is described as follows: (his musings set him apart as more civilized).

"He had never read of God, but he had heard his chariot wheels in the dis- tant thunder, and seen his drapery in the clouds. In moods like these, thoughts which he could not grasp, would pass before him, and he would pause to won- der what they were, and whence they came. It was with such feelings that he stopped, and resting his head againt a large hemlock, which lifted its proud branches high above the neighboring pines, he gazed on the stars, just visible above the horizon." (43).

The clash between Catholic Spain and Protestant North Europe shows at once how two different civilizations can may be at odds with one another, and how our other keyword ""religion"" may play a key role in this clash.

IMPERIALISM and/or WESTERN EXPANSION; CONNECTION TO KEYWORD "COLONIAL"

As noted, Civilization in this sense is often applied critically. Dating to the imperialistic periods of "Civilizing Missions" and the far earlier, self-aggrandizing usages of Hellenistic and Roman culture, contemporary understanding of "civilization" can disparagingly express its own duality as a hypocritical entity. Works such as Joseph Conrad's "Heart Of Darkness" explicitly explore this complexity, criticizing the dehumanizing, narrow, and markedly 'un-civilized' methods and ideology employed by the societies and institutions of imperial force. Effusing from this criticism, additional connotations involving egotism and elitism are likely strengthened and/or perpetuated. For instance, Wheatley states, maybe satirically, that upon arrival to the colonies, she was "refined"; saved from her "diabolic" origin through white protestantism, she suggests both the "refining" quality associated with civility as well as the ethnocentric temperament, in at least this instance, of that said civility. In Jefferson, this connection between civilization and religion can be likewise noted. As he states Queen Elizabeth "licensed Sir Walter Raleigh to search for remote heathen lands, not inhabited by Christian people..." (p. 116). In this context, religion, specifically the Christian religion, is necessary for a land to be civilized and not 'heathen.'

Civilization has been extended by invasion, conversion and trade and by introducing writing and religion to non-literate tribes. Although some tribes are willing to adjust to civilized behavior, other times civilization is spread by force and usually succeed because the "civilized people" are more sophisticated in their technology. Civilization often uses religion to justify its actions, by claiming they are savages and should be subjugated by civilization.

In David Walker's Appeal, there is a connection with civilization and the word 'colonial'. In chapter 4, Walker strongly criticizes the idea that the way to deal with the problem of 'coloured people' is to send them back to a colony in Africa. One of the ideas is that off the Coast of Africa, "ample provision might be made for the colony itself, and it might be rendered instrumental into that extensive quarter of the globe, of the arts, civilization, and Christianity" (Walker 48). In this quote, civilization is used more in the context of being civilized and it is clustered with a specific religion. It is more in keeping with the Western model of civilization, which relates to David Shields description of civilization in Keywords. Sheilds comments on the process of colonization, and he says that "Outside of these nation-states, particularly in places seen as lacking literacy, centralized government, social order, and law, civilization involved a process of acculturation, enabled by commerce and the exchange of knowledge, in which civil society was created and developed” (Shields 45). Walker is protesting this idea, that the free coloured citizens need to go instill these concepts of Western civilization onto the shores of Africa.

The imperialism that often accompanies the spread of civilizations has been the subject of criticism by countless authors. For example, in Jonathan Swift's book, Gulliver's Travels, his biting satire of the human condition deals partly with the proud desire to impart one's will over another civilization. In one scene, the narrator is asked by one of the kings to go and capture a neighboring countries navy, so that the king could "remain sole Monarch of the whole World" (Swift 47). This mindset that accompanies expansion is critiqued by Swift, as he has the narrator respond that "I would never be an Instrument of bringing a free and brave People into Slavery" (Swift 47). Gulliver's Travels is just one account of the barbarities present in a civilization that supposes itself to be enlightened with grand ideas about human nature. Gulliver's Travels also criticizes the European presupposition to inherent superiority and divine right granted by God in these colonizing endeavors. As Swift states, "Here commenses a new Dominion acquired with a Title by Divine Right. Ships are sent with the first Opportunity; the Natives driven out or destroyed, their Princes tortured to discover thier Gold, a free Licence given to all Acs of Inhumanity and Lust[...] And this execrable Crew of Butchers employed in so pious an Expedition, is a modern Clony sent to convert and civilize an idolatrous and barbarous People" (Swift 275). Here, the cluster of the words civilization, colonial, and religion is very strong, and Swift is very critical of the role that religion plays in justifying the reasons for conquering and subjugating another culture. It is interesting how the words 'convert' and 'civilize' are used in conjunction to bring about this colonization.

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Also, in the Keywords book, David Shields notes how the rise of civilizations are often a result of some other, more basic aim. He quotes Bernal 1995 & Paranjape 1998 when he says that civilization always appears in the service of some presumptive project, whether territorial conquest, commercial hegemony, evangelical mission, cultural imperialism, or the enslavement of non-Western populations.

INDIAN or NATIVE AMERICANS

Jefferson seems to utilize a more broad understanding of "civilization" in aspects of his book, attributing social law, morality, and order under its breadth. He ponders, almost as a detached anthropologist, as to why the Indian societies experience so little crime; he notes that rather than submitting to "laws, coercive power, or any shadow of government," (popular tenets of what may widely define "civilization")the "savages" maintain themselves peacefully in small groups, as "sheep" without the presence of "wolves," (Jefferson 99). Though he later asserts that government provides an end for nations aspiring to attain civilization, he does note earlier, that given sufficient resources, the natives would have perhaps garnered more recognizable milestones of cultural and "civil" achievement. Interestingly, in this manner of definition, the connection of civilization with the keeping of written records and developed writing system is a crucial prerequisite for a society to be deemed civilized. Thus, it is this context that could distinguish the word from the word 'barbarians,' which would incorporate any society that did not have 'dignified' writing system or a way to track the history of its people. Successful civilizations were those that had the power to transfer their history to future generations and exert their influence over other civilizations. Interestingly, Jefferson seems to have failed to account for or respect the oral-tradition of many Native American tribes, who through this cultural practice, in addition to their peace, may have been more successful than the colonists in preserving peaceful society, and thus "civilization".

Jefferson also references the keyword Civilization in the context of the keyword Indian, when on page 102 he discusses how he believes that certain statements proposing that lands have been taken from the Indians by conquest & without permission or payment, are false. He goes on to say that he has found numerous proofs of purchase for these lands in public records and that through historians he has found that these claims have been refuted, and he intimates that the talk of taking lands away from the Indians by conquest & force, without proper understanding or compensation, has been largely exaggerated.

(reminder: relate oral culture ( through lens of the perhaps inaccurate trope/archetype of orating, noble savage) with civility of written history... how does "literature" in this way, perhaps pertain to civilization?)


Modern Context

GLOBALIZATION

When examining the modern uses of the word civilization, it is interesting to identify the global civilization that is emerging with the rise of the market state and how the idea of a Western civilization is beginning to fade as the boundaries between nation states become more ambiguous and less important. The growing technology industry makes travel from one part of the world to another more assessable than ever before, and people from different regions are able to connect on a global scale and create a common civilization. Thus, in today's world, it would seem that the element of an areas economy is beginning to grow immensely in importance to connect to the larger global economy. The free market, along with growing concerns for the environment and the problems faced with maintaining stable populations in various areas around the world have brought the term civilization back to a more general term that encompasses all humans everywhere, not just in areas of technological and industrial advancement.

POSTMODERN USE OF CIVILIZATION

Postmodernists and the majority of the public argue that dividing societies into 'civilized' and 'uncivilized' is now arbitrary and insignificant. They state that there civilizations and tribal societies have no difference and each society lives with the resources it has. Postmodernists believe the concept of civilization has simply been used to justify for colonialism, imperialism, and coercive acculturation. However, others argue the difference between civilizations and modern tribal or hunter-gatherer societies is significant. They argue, the structure of social organization are fundamentally altered in complex, urban societies that gather large amounts of unrelated people together into cities. Furthermore, it is argued that the division of labor and specialized economic activities that characterize civilization produce better standards of living for their inhabitants.

For the above reasons, many scholars today avoid using the term "civilization" as a standalone term; they prefer to use state, urban society or agricultural society, which are much less ambiguous, and more neutral sounding. [4]


Works Cited

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Classics, 1999. 1785, France (First Edition)

Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography and Other Writings. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003.

Burgett, Bruce and Glenn Hendler. Ed. Keywords for American Cultural Studies. New York: New York UP, 2007.

Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels. New York: Oxford UP, 2005.

Walker, David. Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World. University Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania UP, 2000.

Rowson, Susanna. Charlotte Temple. New York, New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

Adams, Charles Hansford. The Narrative of Robert Adams A Barbary Captive. New York, New York: Cambridge UP, 2005.

Wheatley, Phillis. Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. New York, New York: New York Public Library Online, 1997.

Child, Lydia Maria Francis. Hobomok. Boston, Massachusetts: Cummings, Hilliard & Co. 1824.